Rafe de Crespigny


A Biographical Dictionary of later Han to the Three Kingdoms (23-220 AD)



HHS Hou Han shu 後漢書 1 :


  • Annals 本纪 and liezhuan 列傳 by Fan Ye 范曄 (396-446), with commentary [TC] compiled under the auspices of Li Xian 李賢, Heir of Tang 章懷太子 (651-684);

  • Treatises incorporated from the Xu Han shu 續漢書 of Sima Biao 司馬彪 (third century), with commentary by Liu Zhao 劉昭 (sixth century) [LC]:

    Treatise on Pitchpipes and the Calendar 律歷志

    Treatise on Ceremonial 禮儀志

    Treatise on Sacrifices 祭祀志

    Treatise on the Heavens 天文志

    Treatise on the Five Powers 五行志

    Treatise on Administrative Geography 郡國志

    Treatise on the Bureaucracy 百官志

    Treatise on Carriages and Robes 輿服志;

  • citation by chapter numbers within sections of the work:

    HHS 1A = HHS annals 1A

    HHS 11/1 = HHS liezhuan 1 [chapter 11 of the whole work]

    HHS 101/11 = HHS treatises 11 [chapter 101 of the whole work]

  • pagination to Beijing 1965 punctuated edition of Zhonghua shuju 中華書局, with some references to the Palace 欽定 edition of the Wuying dian 武英殿 (nineteenth century lithograph by the Wuzhou tongwen 五洲同文 Publishing House), to the Bona 百衲 edition of the Commercial Press 商務印書官, Shanghai 1958,

  • and to HHS jijie 集解 [HHSJJ] compiled by Wang Xianqian 王先謙 and students, with additional comments jiaobu 校補 to each chapter, in the Wanyou wenku 萬有文庫 edition of the Commercial Press, Shanghai [WYWK]; individual commentators may be indicated after the Jijie reference: e.g. HHSJJ 76/66.2719 Hui Dong

  • Indexes: GoKanjo goi shusei 後漢書語彙集成, Kyoto 1961, and Harvard-Yenching Institute Sinological Index Series No. 41, reprinted Taipei 1966, and Renming suoyin, compiled by Zhonghua shuju: see at * below


HS Han shu 漢書 by Ban Gu 班固 (32-92) and others, with commentary by Yan Shigu 顏師古 (581-645) and others; Zhonghua shuju, Beijing 1962

JS Jin shu 晉書 by Fang Xuanling 房玄齡 (578-648) and others; Zhonghua shuju, Beijing 1974

JTS Jiu Tang shu 舊唐書 by Liu Xu 劉昫 of the ninth century, Zhonghua shuju, Beijing 1975

SGZ Sanguo zhi 三國志 by Chen Shou 陳壽 (233-297), with official commentary [PC] compiled by Pei Songzhi 裴松之 (372-451) and presented to Liu Yu 劉裕, founding Emperor Wu of the Song dynasty, in 429; 2


  • citation by chapter numbers within sections of the work:

    SGZ 1 = Wei shu 魏書 1

    SGZ Shu 1 = Shu shu 蜀書 1

    SGZ Wu 1 = Wu shu 吳書 1

  • pagination to Beijing 1959 punctuated edition of Zhonghua shuju,

  • with some references to SGZ jijie 集解 [SGZJJ] compiled by Lu Bi 盧弼, Mianyang 1936, in the facsimile edition by Yiwen 藝又 Publishers, Taipei;

  • Indexes: Harvard-Yenchin Institute Sinological Index Series No. 33, reprinted Taipei 1966, and Renming suoyin, compiled by Zhonghua shuju: see at * below


SJ Shi ji 史記 by Sima Qian 司馬遷 (146. -c. 86 BC), with commentaries:


  • Jijie 集解 by Pei Yin 裴駰 (fifth century);

  • Suoyin 索隠 by Sima Zhen 司馬貞 (eighth century);

  • Zhengyi 正義 by Zhang Shoujie 張守解 (eighth century);

  • Zhonghua shuju, Beijing 1959


SS Song shu 宋書 by Shen Yue 沈約 (441-513), Zhonghua shuju, Beijing 1974

XTS Xin Tang shu 新唐書 by Ouyang Xiu 歐陽修, Song Qi 宋祁 and others of the eleventh century, Zhonghua shuju, Beijing 1975

All other standard histories, Nan Qi shu 南齊書, Liang shu 梁書, Chen shu 陳書, Wei shu 魏書, Bei Qi shu 北齊書, Zhou shu 周書, Sui shu 隋書, Nan shi 南史, Bei shi 北史 and Song shi 宋史 are likewise cited from Zhonghua shuju.

Ershisi shi renming suoyin 二十四史人名索引, Beijing 1997, is a comprehensive index of personal names in all editions of the histories published by Zhonghua shuju.


Anon. see QJHHS

Baopu zi 抱朴子 by Ge Hong 葛洪 (fourth century), cited by Hui Dong in HHSJJ

biezhuan 別傳 see Secondary Biography sub voce

Bowu zhi 博物志 ascribed to Zhang Hua 張華 (232-300), cited by Hui Dong in HHSJJ

Chuguo xianxian zhuan 楚國先賢傳 by Zhang Fang 張方 of Jin, cited by Hui Dong in HHSJJ

DGHJ Dongguan Han ji 東觀漢記 by various authors of the first and second centuries AD, 4 in Sibu beiyao 四部備要 [SBBY]

Dian lue 典略 by Yu Huan 魚豢 (third century), quoted in SGZ PC

FSTY Fengsu tongyi 風俗通義 "A Compendium of Popular Customs" by Ying Shao 應劭, Centre franco-chinois d'études sinologiques, Publication 3;


  • [this edition, which contains an index-concordance, includes ten full chapters and six of fragments; these latter are indicated by a suffix: e.g. 3f];

  • see also Nylan 83


Gaoshi zhuan 高士傳 by Huangfu Mi 皇甫謐 (third century), quoted in HHS TC and cited by HHSJJ

Gaoshi zhuan 高士傳 by Xi/Ji Kang 稽康 (third century), cited by Hui Dong in HHSJJ

Guangzhou xianxian zhuan 廣州先賢傳 [author unknown], fragments cited by Miyakawa 60 from Guangdong tongzhi 廣東通志 "Gazetteer of Guangdong Province" by Ruan Yuan 阮元 and Jiang Fan 江蕃, 1822 reprinted Shanghai 1934, and by Hui Dong in HHSJJ

Guwen yuan 古文苑 by Zhang Qiao 章樵 (Song), in Siku quanshu 四庫全書 Intranet: Sikuquanshu.com [SKQS]

Hainei xianxian zhuan 海内先賢傅 [author unknown (third century)], quoted in HHS TC

[Hanmo] Yingxiong ji 漢末英雄記, quoted in SGZ PC

Han-Wei xianxian xingzhuang 漢魏先賢行狀, fragment preserved in Taiping yulan, cited by Hou Kang in HHSJJ

HHJ Hou Han ji 後漢紀 by Yuan Hong 袁宏 (328-396), in WYWK

Hou Han nan ji 後漢南記 by Zhang Ying 張瑩, cited by Hui Dong in HHSJJ

HQ Hou Han shu 後漢書 by Hua Qiao 華嶠 (d.293) in QJHHS

HYGZ Huayang guo zhi 華陽國志 by Chang Qu 常璩 [mid-fourth century] and others, cited from Guoxue jiben congshu 國學基本叢書, Taiwan Commercial Press 1968;


  • also the Huayang guo zhi jiaobu tuzhi 校補圖志 [HYGZJBTZ] edition compiled by Ren Naiqiang 任乃強, Shanghai 1987; 5

  • and the index Kayôkoku shi jinmei sakuin 華陽國志人名索引, compiled by Taniguchi Fusao 谷口房男, Tokyo 1983


Jiangbiao zhuan 江表傳 by Yu Pu 虞溥 of the third century, quoted in SGZ PC

Jingzhao jiushi 京兆舊事, cited by Hui Dong in HHSJJ [perhaps part of the Sanfu jiushi by Wei Biao q.v. below]

Jiuzhou chunqiu 九州春秋 ascribed to Sima Biao 司馬彪 (third century), quoted in SGZ PC

Jiangbiao zhuan 江表傳 by Yu Pu 虞浦 (third century), quoted in SGZ PC

Jingdian [xuanru dayi] xulu 經典玄儒大義序錄 by Shen Wen'a 沈文阿 (sixth century), cited by Hui Dong in HHSJJ

Jiuzhou chunqiu 九州春秋 ascribed to Sima Biao 司馬彪, quoted in SGZ PC

Kuaiji dianlu 會稽典錄 by Yu Yu 虞預 (fourth century), quoted in SGZ PC

Lidai minghua ji 歴代名畫記 by Zhang Yanyuan 張彥遠 of Tang, in SKQS

Lingdi ji 靈帝紀 by Liu Ai 劉艾 (fl.200), quoted in SGZ PC

Lun heng 論衡 by Wang Chong q.v. (first century AD); see Forke 07 and 11

QJHHS Qijia Hou Han shu 七家後漢書 compiled by Wang Wentai 汪文臺, Taipei 1974: includes the remnant texts of five Hou Han shu: by Xie Cheng [XC], by Xue Ying [XY], by Hua Qiao [HQ], by Yuan Shansong [YSS], of the Xu Han shu by Sima Biao [XHS], and of the Hou Han ji 後漢記/ by Zhang Fan [ZF];


  • at the end of the collection, there are some fragments of histories of Later Han whose authors cannot be identified; these are cited as Anon


Qunfu lu 群輔錄 compiled by Tao Qian 陶潛 [Tao Yuanming 淵明] (365-427), cited by Shen Qinhan in HHSJJ

Runan xianxian zhuan 汝南先賢傳, ascribed to Zhou Fei 周裴 (third century), cited by Hui Dong in HHSJJ

Samguk-sagi 三國史記, completed by Kim Pusik (1075-1151), Sonjin Mumhwasa, Seoul 1969

Sanfu jiushi 三輔舊事 by Wei Biao (first century), cited by Hui Dong in HHSJJ

Sanfu juelu 三輔決錄 by Zhao Qi (second century), quoted in HHS TC and SGZ PC

Secondary Biography [biezhuan] of Guo Tai 郭泰別傳 [author unknown], quoted in HHS TC and SGZ PC

Secondary Biography [biezhuan] of Hua Tuo 華佗別傳 [author unknown], quoted in HHS TC and by SGZ PC

Secondary Biography [biezhuan] of Li He 李郃別傳 [author unknown], cited by Hui Dong in HHSJJ

Secondary Biography [biezhuan] of Xu Kui 許逵別傳 [author unknown], cited from Taiping yulan by Shen Qinhan in HHSJJ

Secondary Biography [biezhuan] of Yin Xun 尹勳別傳 [author unknown], quoted in HHS TC

Secondary Biography [biezhuan] of Zheng Xuan 鄭玄意別傳 [author unknown], cited by Taiping yulan and Hou Kang in HHSJJ

Secondary Biography [biezhuan] of Zhongli Yi 鍾離意別傳 [author unknown], cited by Hui Dong in HHSJJ

Shi tong 史通 by Liu Zhiji 劉知幾 (661-721) in Pu Qilong 浦起龍 [ed.] Shitong tongshi 通釋, Shanghai 1978

Shi xi 世糸 i.e. the genealogies of XTS 71A-75B, as cited by Hui Dong in HHSJJ.

Shixue pian 始學篇 by Xiang Jun 項竣/ of the third century, cited by Hui Dong in HHSJJ

SJZ Shuijing zhu 水經注 by Li Daoyuan 酈道元 (fifth/sixth century), in Sibu congkan 四部叢刊; Index: Harvard-Yenching Institute Sinological Index Series No. 17 reprinted Taipei 1966

Shuduan 書斷 by Zhang Huaiguan 張懷瓘 of Tang, in SKQS

Soushen ji 搜神記 by Gan Bao 干寶 (fourth century), cited by Huo Dong in HHSJJ

SSXY Shishuo xinyu 世說新語 by Liu Yiqing 劉義慶 of the fifth century, with commentary by Liu Jun 劉峻 of the sixth; see Mather 76

Sun Sheng 孫盛 (fourth century), author of some histories, including Weishi chunqiu q.v., and various works of commentary described as Ping , Zaji 雜記, et al., quoted in SGZ PC

Taiping yulan 太平御覽, encyclopaedia edited by Li Fang 李昉 (tenth century), cited in HHSJJ

Tong dian 通典 by Du You 杜佑 (735-812), in Shitong 十通 edition, Commercial Press 1935

Wei-Jin shiyu 魏晉世語 by Guo Song 郭頌 (third century), quoted in SGZ PC

Weishi chunqiu 魏氏春秋 by Sun Sheng 孫盛 q.v., quoted in SGZ PC

Wen xuan 文選 collection of Xiao Tong 蕭統 (501-531); see Knechtges 82 and 87

Wu lu 吳錄 by Zhang Bo 張勃 (third century), quoted in SGZ PC

XC Hou Han shu 後漢書 by Xie Cheng 謝承 (fl. 200), in QJHHS. 6

XHS Xu Han shu 續漢書 by Sima Biao 司馬彪, in QJHHS and see sub Treatises of Fan Ye's Hou Han shu above]

Xiangyang jijiu zhuan 襄陽耆舊傳 by Xi Zuochi 習鑿齒 (fourth century), quoted in HHS LC

Xiandi chunqiu 獻帝春秋 by Yuan Ye 袁曄 (third century), quoted in HHS TC and SGZ PC

Xiandi qiju zhu 獻帝起居注 [author unknown], quoted in HHS TC and SGZ PC

Xianxian xingzhuang 先賢行狀 [author unknown], quoted in HHS TC

XY Hou Han shu 後漢書 by Xue Ying 薛瑩 (d.282), in QJHHS

Yibu qijiu zhuan 益部耆舊傳 by Chen Shou 陳壽? (233-297), quoted in SGZ PC

Yingxiong ji 英雄記 see [Hanmo] [Yingxiong ji] 漢末英雄記

Yiwen leiju 藝文類聚, encyclopaedia compiled by Ouyang Xun 歐陽詢 (seventh century), cited in HHSJJ

YSS Hou Han shu 後漢書 by Yuan Shansong 袁山松 (d.401), in QJHHS

ZF Hou Han ji 後漢記/ by Zhang Fan 張璠, in QJHHS

Zhi lin 志林 by Yu Xi 虞喜 (fourth century), quoted in SGZ PC

ZZTJ Zizhi tongjian 資治通鑑 by Sima Guang 司馬光 (1019-1086), with variorum commentary Kaoyi 考異 by Sima Guang, and commentary by Hu Sanxing 胡三行 (1230-1302), Beijing 1956


Beitu Beijing Tushuguan cang Zhongguo lidai shike taben huibian 北京圖書館藏中國歴代石刻拓本滙編 compiled by Xu Ziqiang 徐自强, Beijing 1989

Cai Cai zhonglang wenji 蔡中郞文集, the Collected Works of Cai Yong, in Sibu beiyao 四部備要 [identified by the item number within each chapter]

LHJSJ Liang-Han jinshi ji 兩漢金石記 compiled by Weng Fanggang 翁方綱 (1733-1818), Nanchang 南昌, Jiangsi 1789

LS and LX Li shi 隸釋 and Li xu 隸續, compiled by Hong Kuo [or Hong Gua] 洪适 of Song, Zhonghua shuju 中華書局 1983;


  • LS 21-23 incorporates the Jigu lu 集古録 of Ouyang Fei 歐陽棐;

  • LS 24-26 contains the Jinshi lu 金石録 of Zhao Mingcheng 趙明誠;

  • LS 27 contains an extract from the anonymous Tianxia bei lu 天下碑録, with titles of some extant stele from the Han and Three Kingdoms


Nagata 94 Nagata Hidemasa 永田英正, Compilation of Stone Inscriptions in the Han Dynasty 漢代石刻集成, Kyoto 1994

Shike shiliao congshu xinbian 石刻史料新編, Xinwenfeng 新文豐出版公司, Taiwan 1977;


  • Includes Jinshi cuibian 金石萃編 [JSCB] compiled by Wang Chang 王昶;

  • and Shike tiba suoyin 石刻題索引, an index compiled by Yang Dianxun 楊殿珣.



Balazs 48 Étienne Balazs, "Entre révolte nihiliste et évasion mystique: les courants intellectuals en Chine au IIIe siècle de notre ère," Études asiatiques 2 (1948), 27-55; translated by Hope M Wright in Chinese Civilization and Bureaucracy: variations on a theme, Yale UP 1964, 226-254
Balazs 50 —, "La crise sociale et la philosophie politique à la fin des Han," TP 39 (1950), 83-131; translated by Hope M Wright in Chinese Civilization and Bureaucracy, 187-225
Balazs 64A see Balazs 50
Balazs 64B see Balazs 48
Barrett 86 see sub Demiéville 86
BMFEA Bulletin of the Museum of Far Eastern Antiquities, Stockholm
Bn 54 Hans Bielenstein, The Restoration of the Han Dynasty: with prolegomena on the historiography of the Hou Han shu, in BMFEA 26, 1954 [includes an appendix of the genealogy of the imperial clan from Emperor Gao of Former Han to the generation of Emperor Guangwu of Later Han]
Bn 59 —, The Restoration of the Han Dynasty: volume II, the civil war, in BMFEA 31, 1959
Bn 67 —, The Restoration of the Han Dynasty: volume III, the people, in BMFEA 39, 1967
Bn 76 —, Lo-yang in Later Han Times, in BMFEA 48, 1976
Bn 79 —, The Restoration of the Han Dynasty: volume IV, the government, in BMFEA 51, 1979
Bn 80 —, The Bureaucracy of Han Times, Cambridge UP 1980
Bn 81 —, "Later Han Inscriptions and Dynastic Biographies: a historiographical comparison," in Proceedings of the International Conference on Sinology, Section on History and Archaeology, Academia Sinica, Taipei 1981, 571-586
Bn 86A —, "Wang Mang, the Restoration of the Han Dynasty, and Later Han," in CHOC:223-290
Bn 86B —, "The Institutions of Later Han," in CHOC:491-519
Bodde 75 Derk Bodde, Festivals in Classical China: New Year and other annual observances during the Han dynasty 206 B.C.-A.D. 220, Princeton UP 1975
Bodde 86 —, "The State and Empire of Ch'in," in CHOC:20-102
CHOC The Cambridge History of China, volume 1, The Ch'in and Han empires 221 B.C.-A.D. 220, edited by Denis Twitchett and Michael Loewe, Cambridge UP 1986 [chapters cited by individual authors]
C/C 99 Robert Joe Cutter and William G Crowell, Empresses and Consorts: selection from Chen Shou's Records of the Three States translated with annotations and introduction, Hawai'i UP 1999 [and see also Cutter 85 and Cutter 92]
Chavannes 05 Édouard Chavannes, "Les pays d'Occident d'après le Wei lio," in TP [New Series] 6 (1905), 519-571
Chavannes 06 —, "Trois généraux chinois de la dynastie des Han Orientaux," in TP [New Series] 7 (1906), 210-269
Chavannes 07 —, "Les pays d'Occident d'apres le Heou Han chou," in TP [New Series] 8 (1907), 149-234
Chavannes 10 —, Le T'ai Chan: essai de monographie d'un culte Chinois, Paris 1910
Ch'en 66 Ch'en Chih-mai, Chinese Calligraphers and their Art, Melbourne 1966
Ch'en 75 Ch'en Ch'i-yün [Chen Chi-yun], Hsün Yüeh (A.D. 148-209): the life and reflections of an early medieval Confucian, Cambridge UP 1975
Ch'en 80 Ch'en Ch'i-yün, Hsün Yüeh and the mind of Late Han China: a translation of Shen-chien with introduction and annotations, Princeton UP 1980
Ch'en 86 Ch'en Ch'i-yün, "Confucianist, Legalist, and Taoist Thought in Later Han," in CHOC:766-807
Ch'ü 72 Ch'ü T'ung-tsu, edited by Jack L Dull, Han Social Structure, Washington UP, Seattle 1972
Cutter 85 Robert Joe Cutter, "The Incident at the Gate: Cao Zhi, succession and literary fame," in TP 71 (1985), 228-262
Cutter 92 —, "The Death of Empress Zhen: fiction and historiography in early medieval China," in Journal of the Oriental Society of America 112 (1992), 577-583 [see also C/C 99]
de Bary 60 William Theodore de Bary, Wing-tsit Chan, Burton Watson [compilers], Sources of Chinese Tradition, Columbia UP 1960
deC 66A Rafe de Crespigny, The Biography of Sun Chien, Canberra 1966
deC 66B —, "The Recruitment System of the Imperial Bureaucracy of Later Han," Chung Chi Journal 6.1 (November 1966), 67-78
deC 67 —, "An Outline of the Local Administration of the Later Han Empire," Chung Chi Journal 7.1 (November 1967), 57-71
deC 70 —, The Records of the Three Kingdoms, Canberra 1970
deC 75A —, "Political Protest in Imperial China: the great proscription of Later Han 167-184," in PFEH 11 (March 1975), 1-36
deC 75B —, "The Harem of Emperor Huan: a study of court politics in Later Han," PFEH 12 (September 1975), 1-42
deC 76 —, Portents of Protest in the Later Han Dynasty: the memorials of Hsiang K'ai to Emperor Huan, Canberra 1976
deC 80 —, "Politics and Philosophy under the Government of Emperor Huan 159-168 AD," in TP 66 (1980), 41-83
deC 81 —, "Inspection and Surveillance Officials under the Two Han Dynasties," in State and Law in East Asia [Festschrift Karl Bünger], edited by Dieter Eikemeier and Herbert Franke, Wiesbaden 1981, 40-79
deC 84 —, Northern Frontier: the policies and strategy of the Later Han empire, Canberra 1984
deC 89 —, Emperor Huan and Emperor Ling: being the chronicle of Later Han for the years 157 to 189 AD as recorded in chapters 54 to 59 of the Zizhi tongjian of Sima Guang; translated and annotated, Canberra 1989
deC 90 —, Generals of the South: the foundation and early history of the Three Kingdoms state of Wu, Canberra 1990
deC 90A —, Man from the Margin: Cao Cao and the Three Kingdoms: the Fifty-first George Ernest Morrison Lecture in Ethnology, Canberra 1990
deC 91 —, "The Three Kingdoms and Western Jin: a history of China in the third century AD:" Part I in East Asian History [EAH] 1 (Canberra, June 1991), 1-36; Part II in EAH 2 (Canberra, December 1991), 143-165
deC 95 —, "Local Worthies: provincial gentry and the end of Later Han," in Das Andere China: Festschrift für Wolfgang Bauer zum 65. Geburtstag, Wiesbaden 1995, 533-558
deC 96 —, To Establish Peace: being the chronicle of Later Han for the years 189 to 220 AD as recorded in chapters 59 to 69 of the Zizhi tongjian of Sima Guang; translated and annotated, Canberra 1996
deC 2002 —, "A Question of Loyalty: Xun Yu, Cao Cao and Sima Guang, " in Sino-Asiatica: papers dedicated to Professor Liu Ts'un-yan on the occasion of his eighty-fifth birthday, edited by Wang Gung-wu, Rafe de Crespigny and Igor de Rachewiltz, Canberra 2002, 30-59
deC 2006A —, "Some Notes on the Western Regions in Later Han," in Journal of Asian History 40.1 (2006), 1-30
deC 2006B —, "Scholars and Rulers: imperial patronage under the Later Han dynasty," in Han-Zeit. Festschrift für Hans Stumpfeldt aus Anlaß seines 65. Geburtstage, edited by Michael Friedrich, assisted by Reinhard Emmerich and Hans van Ess, Wiesbaden 2006, 57-77
Demiéville 86 Paul Demiéville, "Philosophy and Religion from Han to Sui," with a Postscript by Timothy Barrett, in CHOC:808-872 and 873-878
DeWoskin 83 Kenneth J DeWoskin, Doctors, Diviners and Magicians of Ancient China: biographies of Fang-shih, Columbia UP 1983
Dubs 38 Homer H Dubs, The History of the Former Han Dynasty by Pan Ku, [translation] volume 1, Baltimore 1938
Dubs 44 —, The History of the Former Han Dynasty by Pan Ku, volume 2, Baltimore 1944
Dubs 55 —, The History of the Former Han Dynasty by Pan Ku, volume 3, Baltimore 1955
Dull 72 Jack L Dull, "The Confucian Origins of Neo-Taoism", [mimeograph] paper contributed to the Second International Conference on Taoist Studies, Harvard 1972
Eberhardt/Mueller 36 Wolfram Eberhardt and Rolf Mueller, "Contributions to the Astronomy of the Han Period III: astronomy of the Later Han period," in HJAS 1 (1936), 194-241
Ebrey 78 Patricia Ebrey, The Aristocratic Families of Early Imperial China: a case study of the Po-ling Ts'ui family, Cambridge UP 1978
Ebrey 80 —, "Later Han Stone Inscriptions," in HJAS 40 (1980), 325-353
Ebrey 86 —, "The Economic and Social History of Later Han," in CHOC:608-648
Eichhorn 55 Werner Eichhorn, "Bemerkungen zum Aufstand des Chang Chio und zum Staate des Chang Lu," in Mitteilungen des Instituts für Orientforschung 3 (1955), 292-327
ESWSBB Ershiwu shi bubian 二十五史補編, Kaiming shuju 開明書局, Shanghai 1936-37 [rep.1957]
Fang 52 Achilles Fang, The Chronicle of the Three Kingdoms (220-265): chapters 69-78 from the Tzu chih t'ung chien of Ssu-ma Kuang (1019-1086), translated and annotated, volume 1 edited by Glen W Baxter, Harvard-Yenching Institute 1952
Fang 65 —, The Chronicle of the Three Kingdoms volume 2 edited by Bernard S Solomon, 1965
Forke 07 & 11 Alfred Forke, Lun heng: Part I Philosophical Essays of Wang Ch'ung, Part II Miscellaneous Essays of Wang Ch'ung [2 volumes], Shanghai 1907 and 1911, reprinted New York 1962.
G/deC 77 KHJ Gardiner and RRC [Rafe] de Crespigny, "T'an-shih-huai and the Hsien-pi Tribes of the Second Century AD," in PFEH 15 (1977), 1-44
Gardiner 69A KHJ Gardiner, The Early History of Korea, Canberra 1969
Gardiner 69B —, "The Hou-Han-shu as a Source for the Early Expansion of Koguryo," in Monumenta Serica 28 (1969), 148-187
Gardiner 72A —, "The Kung-sun Warlords of Liao-tung (189-238)" Part I, in PFEH 5 (March 1972), 59-107
Gardiner 72B —, "The Kung-sun Warlords of Liao-tung (189-238)" Part II, in PFEH 6 (September 1972), 141-201
Goodman 98 Howard L Goodman, Ts'ao P'i Transcendent: the political culture of dynasty-founding in China at the end of the Han, Seattle 1998.
Goodrich 64-65 & 66 Chauncey S Goodrich, "Two Chapters in the Life of an Empress of the Later Han," Parts I and II, in HJAS 25 (1964-65), 165-177, and 26 (1966), 187-210
Graham 79 William T Graham Jr, "Mi Heng's 'Rhapsody on a Parrot'," in HJAS 39 (1979), 39-54
GSR Bernhard Karlgren, Grammata Serica Recensa, in BMFEA 29, 1957 [note that characters are cited by number not by page]
Haloun 49/50 G Haloun, "The Liang-chou Rebellion 184-221 A.D.," in Asia Major [New Series] 1 (1949-50), 119-132
Henry 92 Eric Henry, "Chu-ko Liang in the Eyes of his Contemporaries," in HJAS 52 (1992), 589-611
HJAS Harvard Journal of Asiatic Studies
Ho 66 Ho Peng Yoke, The Astronomical Chapters of the Chin shu, with amendments, full translations and annotations, Paris 1966
Holmgren 80 Jennifer Holmgren, Chinese Colonisation of Northern Vietnam: administrative geography and political development in the Tongking delta, first to sixth centuries A.D., Canberra 1980
Holzman 57 Donald Holzman, "Les débuts du système médiéval de choix et de classement des fonctionnaires: les neuf catégories et l'Impartial et Juste," in Mélanges publiés par l'Institut des Hautes Études Chinoises 1 (1957), 387-414
Hopkins 83 Donald R Hopkins, Princes and Peasants: smallpox in history, Chicago UP 1983
Hou Kang Hou Kang 侯康, Bu Hou Han shu yiwen zhi 補後漢書藝文志 in ESWSBB II, 2105-2304 [cited by pagination only]. Comments by Hou Kang in other works are cited by HHSJJ.
Hsia 68 C.T. Hsia, The Classic Chinese Novel: a critical introduction, Columbia UP 1968
Hsü 80 Hsü Cho-yün [Cho-yun Hsu], Han Agriculture: the formation of early Chinese agrarian economy (206 B.C.-A.D. 220), edited by Jack L Dull, Washington UP, Seattle 1980
Hughes 60 ER Hughes, Two Chinese poets: vignettes of Han life and thought, Princeton UP 1960
Hulsewé 55 AFP Hulsewé, Remnants of Han Law volume I, Leiden 1955.
Hulsewé 61 —, "Notes on the Historiography of the Han Period", in WG Beasley and EG Pulleyblank [eds], Historians of China and Japan, Oxford UP 1961, 31-43.
Hulsewé 79 —, China in Central Asia: the early stage 125 B.C. - A.D. 23, with an Introduction by Michael Loewe, Leiden 1979
Hulsewé 86 —, "Ch'in and Han Law," in CHOC:520-544
Kaltenmark 79 Max Kaltenmark, "The Ideology of the T'ai-p'ing-ching," in Holmes Welch and Anna Seidel [eds], Facets of Taoism: essays in Chinese religion, Yale UP 1979, 19-45
Kandel 79 Barbara Kandel, Taiping Jing - the origin and transmission of the 'Scripture on General Welfare'- the history of an unofficial text, Hamburg 1979
KG Kaogu: 考古 "Archeology", Beijing.
Kinney 90 Anne Behnke Kinney, The Art of the Han Essay: Wang Fu's Ch'ien-fu lun, Arizona State University 1990
Knechtges 82 David R Knechtges, Wen xuan or Selections of Refined Literature: volume one, rhapsodies on metropolises and capitals; by Xiao Tong (501-531), translated with annotations and introduction, Princeton UP 1982
Knechtges 87 —, Wen xuan or Selections of Refined Literature: volume two, rhapsodies on sacrifices, hunting, travel, sightseeing, palaces and halls, rivers and seas; by Xiao Tong (501-531), translated with annotations, Princeton UP 1987
Kramers 86 Robert P Kramers, "The Development of the Confucian Schools," in CHOC:747-765
Künstler 69 Mieczyslaw Jerzy Künstler, Ma Jong: vie et oeuvre, Warsaw 1969
Lao Kan 勞榦 An Anthology of the Articles in the Academic Works 勞榦學術論文集, [2 volumes], Taipei 1976 [includes Lun Handai zhi luyun yu shuiyun 論漢代之陸運與水運, from Chung-yang yen-chiu-yüan li-shi yü-yen yen-chiu-suo chi-k'an 16 (1947), 69-91
Leban 71 Ts'ao Ts'ao and the Rise of Wei: the early years," doctoral dissertation, Columbia University 1971
Leban 78 —, "Managing Heaven's Mandate: coded communications in the accession of Ts'ao P'ei, A.D. 220," in David T Roy and Tsuen-hsuin Tsien [eds], Ancient China: studies in early civilization, Chinese UP, Hong Kong 1978, 315-341
Legge CC James Legge, The Confucian Classics, reprinted Hong Kong 1960 —, CC I: The Confucian Analects, The Great Learning, The Doctrine of the Mean —, CC II: The Works of Mencius —, CC III: The Shoo King or the Book of Historical Documents —, CC IV: The She King, or the Book of Poetry —, CC V: The Ch'un Ts'ew with the Tso Chuen
Lewis 2000 Mark Edward Lewis, "The Han Abolition of Universal Military Service," in Warfare in Ancient China, edited by Hans van de Ven, Leiden 2000, 33-75
Liu 2006 Liu Ts'un-yan, "Was Celestial Master Zhang a Historical Figure?" in Taoism in History: essays in honour of Liu Ts'un-yan, edited by Benjamin Penny, London and New York 2006, 189-253
Loewe 60 Michael Loewe, "The Orders of Aristocratic Rank in Han China, " in TP 48 (1960), 97-174
Loewe 67A-B —, Records of Han Administration [2 volumes], Cambridge UP 1967
Loewe 74 —, Crisis and Conflict in Han China 104 B.C. to A.D. 109, London 1974
Loewe 86A —, "Introduction," CHOC:1-19
Loewe 86B —, "The Former Han Dynasty," in CH0C:103-222
Loewe 86C —, "The Conduct of Government and the Issues at Stake (A.D.57-167)," in CHOC:291-316
Loewe 86D —, "The Structure and Practice of Government," in CHOC:463-490
Loewe 86E —, "The Religious and Intellectual Background," in CHOC:649-725
Loewe 86F —, "The Concept of Sovereignty," in CHOC:726-746
Loewe 93 —, see Texts
Loewe 2000 —, see QHX
Loewe 2004 —, The Men who Governed Han China: companion to A Biographical Dictionary of the Qin, Former Han and Xin Periods, Leiden 2004
Mather 76 Richard B Mather, Shishuo Xinyu: A New Account of Tales of the World, by Liu I-ch'ing with commentary by Liu Chün, translated with introduction and notes, Minnesota UP 1976
MBeck 80 BJ Mansvelt Beck, "The Date of the Taiping jing," in TP 66 (1980), 147-182
MBeck 86 —, "The Fall of Han," in CH0C:317-376
MBeck 90 —, The Treatises of Later Han: their author, sources, contents and place in Chinese historiography, Leiden 1990
McNeill 76 William H McNeill, Plagues and Peoples, New York [Doubleday Paperback] 1976
Miao 82 Ronald C Miao, Early Medieval Chinese Poetry: the life and verse of Wang Ts'an A.D. 177-217), Wiesbaden 1962
Miyakawa 60 Miyakawa Hisayuki, "The Confucianization of South China," in Arthur F Wright [ed.], The Confucian Persuasion, Stanford UP 1960, 21-46
Needham 59 Joseph Needham, with the collaboration of Wang Ling, Science and Civilisation in China, volume 3, Mathematics and the sciences of the heavens and the earth, Cambridge UP 1959
Needham 62 —, Science and Civilisation in China, volume 4: Physics and Physical Technology; part 1: Physics [with the collaboration of Wang Ling and the special co-operation of Kenneth Girdwood Robinson], Cambridge UP 1962
Needham 65 —, Science and Civilisation in China, volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology; part 2: Mechanical Engineering [with the collaboration of Wang Ling], Cambridge UP 1965
Needham 71 —, Science and Civilisation in China, volume 4, Physics and Physical Technology; part 3: Civil Engineering and Nautics [with the collaboration of Wang Ling], Cambridge UP 1971
Needham 74 —, Science and Civilisation in China, volume 5, Chemistry and Chemical Technology; part 2: Spagyrical discovery and invention: magisteries of gold and immortality [with the collaboration of Lu Gwei-djen], Cambridge UP 1974
Needham 85 —, Science and Civilisation in China, volume 5, Chemistry and Chemical Technology; part 1: Paper and Printing by Tsien Tsuen-hsuin, Cambridge UP 1985
Needham 86 —, Science and Civilisation in China, volume 6 Biology and Biological Technology; part 1: Botany [with the collaboration of Lu Gwei-djen and a special contribution by Huang Hsing-tsung], Cambridge UP 1986
Nishijima 86 "The Economic and Social History of Former Han," in CHOC:545-607
Ngo 76 Ngo Van Xuyet, Divination, magie et politique dans la Chine ancienne, Paris 1976
Nylan 83 Michael Nylan, "Ying Shao's Feng su t'ung yi: an exploration of problems in Han dynasty political, philosophical and social unity," doctoral dissertation, Princeton University 1982
Nylan 92 —, The Shifting Center: The Original "Great Plan" and Later Readings, Monumenta Serica Monograph Series XXIV
O'Hara 55 A R O'Hara, The Position of Women in Early China, according to the Lieh nü chuan [of Liu Xiang 77?-6? BC]: the biographies of Chinese women, Hong Kong 1955 (?)
Paper 87 Jorden D Paper, The Fu-zi: a post-Han Confucian text, Leiden 1987
Pearson 89 Margaret J Pearson, Wang Fu and the Comments of a Recluse, Arizona 1989
Petersen 89-90 "The Early Traditions Relating to the Han Dynasty Transmission of the Taiping jing," in Acta Orientalia, Copenhagen: Part I (1989); Part II (1990)
PFEH Papers on Far Eastern History, The Australian National University, Canberra
Powers 91 Michael J Powers, Art and Political Expression in Early China, Yale UP 1991
QHX Michael Loewe, A Biographical Dictionary of the Qin, Former Han and Xin Periods, Leiden 2000
Romance Sanguo [zhi] yanyi 三國志演義 "Romance of the Three Kingdoms" by Luo Guanzhong 羅貫中 of the fourteenth century, cited by chapter numbers
Sailey 78 Jay Sailey, The Master who Embraces Simplicity: a study of the philosopher Ko Hung A.D. 283-343, Taipei 1978
Schafer 63 Edward H Schafer, The Golden Peaches of Samarkand: a study of T'ang exotics, California UP 1963
Schafer 67 —, The Vermilion Bird: T'ang images of the South, California UP 1967
Schreiber 47 Gerhard Schreiber, "Das Volk der Hsien-pi zur Han-Zeit," in Monumenta Serica 12 (1947), 145-203
Scott 53 Margaret I Scott, "A Study of the Ch'iang, with special reference to their settlements in China from the second to the fifth century A.D.", doctoral disertation, University of Cambridge 1953
Seidel 69 Anna Seidel, La Divinisation de Lao tseu dans le Taoïsme des Han, Paris 1969
Seidel 69/70 —, "The Image of the Perfect Ruler in Early Taoist Messianism: Lao-tzu and Li Hung," in History of Religions 9.2/3 (November 1969-February 1970), 216-247
Seidel 78 —, "Der Kaiser und sein Ratgeber" in Saeculum 29/1 (1978), 18-50
Sivin 69 Nathan Sivin, "Cosmos and Computation in Early Chinese Mathematical Astronomy," TP 55 (1969), 1-73
SKQSCM Siku quanshu congmu 四庫全書總目, Taipei reprint 1974
Stein 47 Rolf A Stein, "Le Lin-yi: sa localisation, sa contribution à la formation du Champa et ses liens avec la Chine, " in Han-hiue: Bulletin du Centre d'Études Sinologiques de Pékin 2.1-3 (1947)
Sun 56 Sun Wenqing 孫文靑, Zhang Heng nianpu 張衡年譜, Shanghai 1956
Swann 32 Nancy Lee Swann, Pan Chao, foremost woman scholar of China, first century A.D., New York 1932
Tang 55 Tang Changru 唐長孺, Wei-Jin nanbeichao shi lun cong 魏晉南北朝論叢, Beijing 1955
Taylor 83 Keith Weller Taylor, The Birth of Vietnam, California UP 1983
Texts Early Chinese Texts: a bibliographical guide, edited by Michael Loewe, The Society for the Study of Early China 1993: contributors include Hans Bielenstein, William G Boltz, Ch'en Ch'i-yün, Anne Cheng, W South Coblin, Christopher Cullen, AFP Hulsewé, Robert P Kramers, John Lagerwey, DC Lau, Michael Loewe, John Makeham, Roy Andrew Miller, Margaret Pearson, Timoteus Pokora, Jeffrey K Riegel, Edward L Shaughnessy, Axel Schuessler
Tjan 49 Tjan Tjoe Som, Po hu t'ung: the comprehensive discussion in the White Tiger Hall, volume 1, Leiden 1949
Tjan 52 —, Po hu t'ung: the comprehensive discussion in the White Tiger Hall, volume 2, Leiden 1952
TP T'oung Pao, Leiden
Tsunoda/Goodrich 51 Tsunoda Ryusaku and LC Goodrich, Japan in the Chinese Dynastic Histories, South Pasadena 1951
van Ess 93 van Ess, Hans, Politik und Gelehrsamkeit in der Zeit der Han (202.Chr.-220 n. Chr): die Alttext/Neutext-Kontroverse, Wiesbaden 1993
van Ess 99 —, "The Apocryphal Texts of the Han Dynasty and the Old Text/New Text Controversy," TP 85 (1999), 29-64
Vervoorn 90 Aat Vervoorn, Men of the Cliffs and Caves: the development of the Chinese eremitic tradition to the end of the Han dynasty, Chinese UP, Hong Kong 1990
Welch 66 Holmes Welch, Taoism: the parting of the Way [revised edition], Boston 1966
Wilhelm 66 Richard Wilhelm, The I Ching or Book of Changes: the Richard Wilhelm translation rendered into English by Cary F Baynes, with Foreword by C G Jung and Preface to the Third Edition by Hellmut Wilhelm, Princeton UP 1966.
Wu 89 Wu Hong, The Wu Liang Shrines: the ideology of early Chinese pictorial art, Stanford UP 1989
WW Wenwu 文物 "Cultural Relics," Beijing
Wu/Yang Wu Zengjin 吳增僅 and Yang Shoujing 楊守敬, Sanguo junxian biao fu kaozheng 三國郡縣表附考證, in ESWSBB III, 2821-2968 [cited by pagination only]
Yang Shu-ta 楊樹逹 Handai hunsang lisu kao 漢代婚喪禮俗考, Shanghai 1933
Yang 63 Yang Lien-sheng, Studies in Chinese Institutional History, Harvard-Yenching Institute 1963
Yao Zhenzong 姚振宗 Hou Han shu yiwen zhi 後漢書藝文志 in ESWSBB II, 2305-2130 [cited by pagination only]
Yen Keng-wang 嚴耕望 [Yan Gengwang], History of the Regional and Local Administration in China 中國地方行政制度史, Part I: The Qin and Han dynasties [2 volumes], Taipei 1961
Young 84 GC Young, Three Generals of Later Han, Canberra 1984
Yü 67 Yü Ying-shih, Trade and Expansion in Han China: a study in the structure of Sino-barbarian economic relations, California UP 1967
Yü 86 —, Yü Ying-shih, "Han Foreign Relations," in CH0C:377-462
Zhongguo lishi ditu ji 中國厯地圖集 II compiled by Tan Qixiang 谭其骧 and others, Shanghai 1982
Zhou Mingtai 周明泰 Sanguo zhi shixi biao 三國志世系表 in ERWSBB II, 2645-2724
Zürcher 59 E Zürcher, The Buddhist Conquest of China, Leiden 1959


Chen Jingyun 陳景雲 (d. 1747)

Gu Yanwu 顧炎武 (seventeenth-century)

Hang Shijun 杭世駿 (1696-1773)

Hong Liangji 洪亮吉 (1746-1809)

Hong Yixuan 洪頤煊 (1765-1837)

Hou Kang 侯康 (1798-1837)

Hui Dong 惠棟 (1697-1758)

Liu Congchen 劉從辰 [Qing]

Qian Daxin 錢大昕 (1728-1804)

Qian Dazhao 錢大昭 (1744-1813)

Ruan Yuan 阮元 (1764-1849)

Shen Mingyi 沈铭彞 [Qing]

Shen Qinhan 沈欽韓 (1775-1832)

Su Yu 蘇輿 [Qing]

Wang Guowei 王國維 (1877-1927)

Wang Wentai 汪文臺 [Qing]

Wang Xianqian 王先謙 (1842-1917)

Zhao Yiqin 趙一凊 [eighteenth century]

Zhou Shouchang 周夀昌 (1814-1884)


This list is designed as an index to writings mentioned in the various biographies; fuller details are provided under the entries for the various authors. I have made no attempt to record every work mentioned in the histories: that work has been comprehensively carried out by Hou Kang and Yao Zhenzong.

The major genres of writing common at this time are rendered as follows:

bei stele inscription [funerary or commemorative]

biezhuan 別傳 secondary biography

fu rhapsody

lei eulogy

ling inscription

ling biao 靈表 memorial statement

lun discussion or essay

mu biao 墓表 tomb inscription

mu zhi 墓誌/ tomb marker

shi poem

song hymn

ya ode

zan eulogy

zhangju 章句 commentary or detailed commentary [lit. "Exposition in Paragraphs and Sentences"]

zhen exhortation

Larger works were commonly measured in pian sections, which could contain a number of juan scrolls. Modern measurements equate juan to chapters.



  • Five Classics were represented by Academicians at the Imperial University:

    Book of Changes : Yi jing 易經 or Zhou yi 周易

    New Text:

    • Shi interpretation [of Shi Chou 施讎 of Former Han]* 8

      Meng interpretation [of Meng Xi 孟喜 of Former Han]*

      Liangqiu interpretation [of Liangqiu He 梁丘賀 of Former Han]*

      Jing interpretation [of Jing Fang 京房 of Former Han]*

    Old Text:

    • Fei interpretation [of Fei Zhi 費直 of Former Han]

      Gao interpretation [of Gao Xiang 高相 of Former Han]

    Classic of History : Shu jing 書經 or Shangshu 尚書

    New Text [based upon the version of Fu Sheng 伏勝 of Qin/Former Han]

    • Ouyang interpretation [Ouyang Gao 歐陽高 of Former Han]*

      Elder Xiahou 大夏侯 [Xiahou Sheng 夏侯勝 of Former Han]*

      Younger Xiahou 小夏侯 [Xiahou Jian 夏侯建, nephew of Sheng]*

    Old Text 古文尚書 [allegedly found in a wall of the house of Confucius and sponsored by Kong Anguo 孔安國 of Former Han]

    Classic of Poetry : 詩經 Shi jing [comprising the Airs of the States 國風 Guo feng, the Greater and Lesser Odes 大雅 Daya and 小雅 Xiaoya, and the Hymns Song]

    New Text:

    • Han 韓詩 founded by Han Ying 韓嬰 of Former Han*

      Lu 魯詩 founded by Shen Pei 申培 of Former Han*

      Qi 齊詩 founded by Yuan Gu 轅固 of Former Han*

    Old Text:

    • Mao 毛詩 founded by Mao Heng 毛亨 and his nephew Chang of Former Han

    Ritual : the present-day Yi li 儀禮 and Li ji 禮記 9 known variously as:

    • Shi li 士禮: New Text version, first identified by Gao Tangsheng 高堂生 of Former Han

      Li gu jing 禮古經 or Yi li 逸禮 "Lost Rites": Old Text version, said to have been found in the wall of Confucius' house during Former Han

      Li jing 禮經: Han term for the present Yi li, incorporating records/notes ji

      Yi li 儀禮: this title, first cited in the Lun heng of Wang Chong of the first century AD, later became the standard name for the present-day Yi li

      Qu li 曲禮: title of a work cited by Zheng Xuan 鄭玄 of the second century AD

    New Text schools of interpretation/editions:

    • Elder Dai 大戴 [Dai De 戴德 of Former Han]*

      Younger Dai 小戴 [Dai Sheng 戴聖, nephew of Dai De]*

      Qing [Qing Pu 慶普 of Former Han]* 10

    Chunqiu 春秋 Spring and Autumn Annals

    Gongyang 公羊 commentary [ascribed to the New Text]

    • Zhuang/Yan interpretation [of Zhuang Pengzu 莊彭祖 of Former Han]* 11

      Yan interpretation [of Yan Anle 顏安樂 of Former Han]*

    Guliang 穀梁 commentary [ascribed to the New Text]

    Zuo zhuan 左傳 [ascribed to the Old Text]

    • sponsored by Liu Xin 劉歆 (46 BC-23 AD)* 12



  • Other works of Confucianism not included in the University canon:

    Analects of Confucius 論語 Lun yu 13

    Book of Mencius 孟子 Mengzi

    Book of Filial Piety 孝經 Xiao jing

    • In both an Old Text and a New Text version

    Er ya 爾雅 14

    Zhou li 周禮: originally known as 周官 Zhou guan "Offices of the Zhou dynasty"

    • Old Text, sponsored by Liu Xin 劉歆.

    Note: The Stone Classics 石經 were engraved by Cai Yong, Ma Midi and others, in response to an edict of 175; the work was completed about 183. The classics chosen were Analects, Changes, Ritual, History, and Chunqiu with the Gongyang commentary. See Bn 76.70 and deC 89.481-483, also Li shi 14 [which includes an extract from the Poetry in the Lu interpretation: this must be from later work of the Wei period.]



  • Later Han editions and commentaries to the Confucian classics

    Analects 論語

    • by Bao Xian 鮑咸

      by Cheng Ping 程秉

      by He Xiu 何休

      by Ma Da 麻逹

      by Ma Rong 馬融

      by Yu Fan 虞翻

      by Zhang Zhao 張昭

      by Zheng Xuan 鄭玄

    Book of Changes 易經

    • by Cheng Ping 程秉

      by Cui Zhuan 崔篆: Zhouyi lin 周易林, a study of divination

      by Dong Yu 董遇

      by Fan Ying 樊英: Fanshi xue 樊氏學 "Teachings of Mr Fan"

      by Feng Hao 馮顥

      by Gui Dan 洼丹: Yi tonglun 易通論, later known as Guijun tong 洼君通 "Explanations of Master Gui"

      by Jing Luan 景鸞: Yi shuo 易說 "Discussion on the Changes, " in his He-Luo jiaoji 河洛交集 "Connected Collection to [the Map from] the Yellow River and [the Book from] the Luo"

      by Liu Biao 劉表 [see also also Qimu Kai 綦母闓 et al.]

      by Lu Ji 陸績

      by Ma Rong 馬融

      by Qimu Kai 綦母闓, Song/Zong Zhong /宗忠/ and others for Liu Biao 劉表: the "Later Edition" 後定 [and note Liu Biao above]

      by Wang Lang 王朗: Yi zhuan 易傳

      by Wei Boyang 魏伯陽

      by Xu Jun 許峻: Yi lin 易林 and other studies

      by Xun Shuang 荀爽: Yi zhuan 易傳

      by Yu Fan 虞翻

      by Yuan Jing 袁京: Nan ji 難記 "Record of Problems"

      by Yuan Taibo 袁太伯

      by Zheng Xuan 鄭玄

    Book of Filial Piety 孝經

    • by He Xiu 何休

      by Liu Xi 劉熙

      by Ma Rong 馬融

      by Yan Jun 嚴畯

      by Zheng of the second century AD [probably not Zheng Xuan 鄭玄]

      by Wang Fu 王輔, on Xiao jing wei Yuanshen qi 孝經緯援神契, an apocryphal work associated with the Book of Filial Piety

      by Zhai Fu 翟輔, on the apocrypha to the Book of Filial Piety

    Chunqiu 春秋 [Spring and Autumn Annals]

    with Gongyang and Guliang commentaries, and Zuo zhuan

    • by Dong Yu 董遇: Zuo zhuan zhuhei bieyi 左傳朱墨別異, a variorum edition

      by Fan Shu 樊鯈/: Fanhou xue 樊侯學 "Teachings of the Marquis Fan" later abridged by Zhang Ba 張霸 q.v.

      by Fu Qian 服虔: Chunqiu Zuoshi zhuan jie [yi] 春秋左氏傳解[] "Explanation of Zuo zhuan"

      by He Xiu 何休: Chunqiu Gongyang jiegu 春秋公羊解詁

      by Jia Hui 賈徽: Zuoshi tiaoli 左氏條例

      by Jia Kui 賈逵: "Explanation and Commentary" 解詁 to Zuo zhuan

      by Kong Jia 孔嘉: Zuo zhuan shuo 左氏說

      by Kong Qi 孔奇: Chunqiu Zuoshi shan 春秋左氏刪

      by Li Yu 李育 IV: Nan Zuozhuan yi 難左傳義 "Errors in Zuo zhuan"

      by Liu Mu 劉睦: commentary to Chunqiu

      by Liu Tao 劉陶: Chunqiu tiaoli 春秋條例

      by Peng Wang 彭汪: commentary to Zuo zhuan

      by Qimu Kai 綦母闓, Song/Zong Zhong /宗忠/ and others for Liu Biao 劉表: the "Later Edition" 後定

      by Tang Gu 唐固: commentaries to Gongyang and Guliang

      by Xie Gai 謝該, compiled by Yue Xiang 樂詳: Xieshi shi 謝氏釋 "Explanations by Mr Xie, " also known as Zuozhuan wen qishier shi 左傳問七十二事 "Questions on Seventy-two Matters in Zuo zhuan"

      by Xun Shuang 荀爽: Chunqiu tiaoli 春秋條例

      by Yang Zhong 楊終: Chunqiu 春秋外傳

      by Ying Rong /穎容: Chunqiu Zuo zhuan tiao li 春秋左氏條例

      by Zhang Ba 張霸: "Mr Zhang's Study" 張氏學, abridgement of Fan Shu 樊鯈/ q.v.

      by Zhang Zhao 張昭: commentaries to both Chunqiu and Zuo zhuan]

      by Zheng Zhong 鄭眾

      by Zhong Xing 鍾興: abridgement of the detailed commentary to Chunqiu from Former Han

    Classic of History 書經 Shu jing or 尚書 Shangshu

    • by Cheng Ping 程秉

      by Huan Rong 桓榮 and Huan Yu 桓郁, abridging the work of Zhu Pu 朱普 of Former Han: "Greater and Lesser Commentaries of the Ministers of Ceremonies the Lords Huan" 桓君大小太常章句

      by Liu Tao 劉陶: the "Median Edition" 中文尚書 of the Old Text and New Text

      by Lu Zhi 盧植.

      by Ma Rong 馬融

      by Mou Qing 牟卿 of Former Han and Mou Zhang 牟張/: 牟氏章句 [abridged by Zhang Huan 張奐 (see below)]

      by Qimu Kai 綦母闓, Song/Zong Zhong /宗忠/ and others for Liu Biao 劉表: the "Later Edition" 後定

      by Wang Su 王肅, who allegedly forged an ancient text [and also Kongzi jiayu q.v.]

      by Wei Hong 衛宏: Gu Shangshu xunzhi 古文尙書訓旨, an exposition of the Old Text

      by Xun Shuang 荀爽: 尚書正經 Shangshu zhengjing

      by Zhang Huan 張奐: Shangshu jinan 尚書記難; also an abridgement of the commentary by Mou Jing and Mou Zhang

      by Zhang Kai 張楷 [doubtful authenticity]

      by Zheng Xuan 鄭玄

      by Zhou Fang 周防: Shujing zaji 書經雜記

    Classic of Poetry 詩經 Shi jing

    • by Du Fu 杜撫: Shi tiyue yitong 詩題約義通 and see also sub Xue Han 薛漢

      by Du Qiong 杜瓊

      by Fu An 伏黯, detailed commentary later abridged by Fu Gong 伏恭

      by Fu An 伏黯: Jieshuo 解說 "Explanation of Terms"

      by Hou Ba 侯芭

      by Jing Luan 景鸞: Shi jie 詩解 "Explanation of the Poetry," in his He-Luo jiaoji 河洛交集 "Connected Collection to [the Map from] the Yellow River and [the Book from] the Luo"

      by Ma Rong 馬融

      by Qimu Kai 綦母闓, Song/Zong Zhong /宗忠/ and others for Liu Biao 劉表: the "Later Edition" 後定

      by Xue Han 薛漢 and Du Fu 杜撫: a detailed commentary

      by Xue Han 薛漢: Mao-Shi xu 毛詩序, a preface to the Mao recension

      by Xun Shuang 荀爽: Shi zhuan 詩傳

      by Zhang Kuang 張匡

      by Zhao Ye 趙曄: Shi xili shenyuan 詩細歷神淵, interpreting the classic by calendrical calculations

      by Zheng Xuan 鄭玄

    Er ya 爾雅

    • by Li Xun 李巡

    Mencius 孟子 Mengzi

    • by Cheng Zeng 程曾

      by Zhao Qi 趙岐/

      by Zheng Xuan 鄭玄


    • by Cao Bao 曹褒

      by Cao Chong 曹充

      by Liu Biao 劉表 [see also Qimu Kai 綦母闓 et al.]

      by Lu Zhi 盧植

      by Ma Rong 馬融

      by Qimu Kai 綦母闓, Song/Zong Zhong /宗忠/ and others for Liu Biao 劉表: the "Later Edition" 後定 [and note Liu Biao above]

      by Xun Shuang 荀爽

      by Zheng Xuan 鄭玄

    Zhou li 周禮 or Zhou guan 周官

    • by Du Zichun 杜子春

      by Jia Kui 賈逵

      by Lin Shuo /林碩

      by Ma Rong 馬融

      by Zhang Heng 張衡

      by Zhang Pingzi: Zhouguan jieshuo 周官解說

      by Zheng Xuan 鄭玄: Zhouguan zhu 周官注

      by Zheng Zhong 鄭眾



Ai dian 哀典 "An Account of Mourning" by Li You 李尤

Ailao zhuan 哀牢傳 "Account of the Ailao People" by Yang Zhong 楊終

Baigua fu 白鵠賦 "Rhapsody on the White Crane," by Cui Qi 崔琦

Ba-Shu qijiu zhuan 巴蜀耆舊傳 "Venerable Men and Ancient Affairs of Ba and Shu" by Wang Shang 王商, Zhao Qian 趙謙 and Zheng Qin 鄭勤/

Beizheng fu 北征賦 "Rhapsody on a Northward Journey" by Ban Biao 班彪

Biandao lun 辯道論 by Cao Zhi 曹植

Bian-he tong zhi lun 辯和同之論 "Discussion on the Reconciliation of Differences" by Liu Liang/Cen 劉梁/

Bian lun 邊論, a discussion of the frontier, by Du Du 杜篤

Bingyun tu 兵雲圖, a table for predicting the course of warfare from the appearance of clouds, see sub Yang You 楊由

Boguan zhen 百官箴 "Admonitions to Officials" by Hu Guang 胡廣 and others

Bohu tong 白虎通 "The Comprehensive Discussions in the White Tiger Hall" by Ban Gu 班固

Bohu tongyi 白虎通義, summary account of the general significance of the discussions in the White Tiger Hall

Bohu tong delun 白虎通德論 i.e. Bohu tongyi by Ban Gu 班固 and others

Bohu yizou 白虎議奏, memorials from the conference in the White Tiger Hall

Cai Yong bencao 蔡邕本草, a work of pharmacology by Cai Yong

Cao Dagu ji 曹大家集, collected works of Ban Zhao 班昭, collected by the Lady Ding I

Caoshu shi 草書勢, a treatise on Grass Style calligraphy, by Cui Yuan 崔瑗

Ce shibing ye fu 刺世疾邪賦 "Rhapsody on the Ills of the Times" by Zhao Yi 趙壹

Changyan 昌言 "Admirable Words" by Zhongchang Tong 仲長統, with an Introduction by Miao Xi 繆襲

Chanwei 讖緯, apocrypha, imperial edition by Xue Han 薛漢 [and see sub Yin Min 尹敏]

Chaoshui lun 潮水論, an account of the Chao River in south China, by Yan Jun 嚴畯

Chenfeng shi 晨風詩, a mourning poem, by Yang Zhong 楊終

Chenliu fengsu zhuan 陳留風俗傳 "Record of the Customs of Chenliu" by Juan Cheng 圈稱

Chenliu qijiu zhuan 陳留耆舊傳 "Venerable Men and Ancient Affairs of Chenliu" by Juan Cheng 圈稱, sponsored by Yuan Tang 袁湯

Chenzi 陳子, collected works by Chen Ji 陳紀

Chonghou lun 祟厚論 "Essay in Praise of Liberality" by Zhu Mu 朱穆

Chu ci zhangju 楚辭章句, commentary by Wang Yi 王逸 [and see Li sao]

Chunqiu Han yi 春秋漢議 by He Xiu 何休

Chunqiu Han yi bo 春秋漢議駮 by Fu Qian 服虔

Cishe shuo 刺奢說, an essay against extravagance, by Feng Hao 馮顥

Cisong bi 辭訟比 "Precedents for [Civil] Cases" by Chen Chong 陳寵

Daosao fu 悼騷賦 by Liang Song 梁竦

Daque fu 大雀賦 "Rhapsody on the Great Bird [from the West]" by Ban Zhao 班昭

Daru lun 大儒論 "An Essay on Great Confucianism" by Wang Chong 王充

Dayan xuanji 大衍玄基, on prognostications, by Wang Jing 王景

De xing 徳行 "Virtuous Conduct, " a posthumous record of Li Gu 李固, compiled by Du Fang 杜訪, Zhao Cheng 趙承 and others

Denglou fu 登樓賦 "Rhapsody on Climbing the Tower" by Wang Can 王粲

Dengtai fu 登臺賦 "Rhapsody on Climbing the Terrace" by Cao Zhi 曹植

Dili zhi 地理志 "Treatise of Geography" by Fu Wuji 伏無忌

Dongdu fu 東都賦 "Rhapsody on the Eastern Metropolis" by Zhang Heng 張衡

Dongguan Hanji 東觀漢記: by Ban Gu 班固, Bian Shao 邊韶, Deng Si 鄧嗣, Du Fu 杜撫, Liu Taotu 劉陶駼, Liu Yi 劉毅, Liu You 李尤, Liu Zhen 劉珍, Yan Du 延篤, Zhu Mu 朱穆 et al.; also Yi Treatises by Cai Yong 蔡邕

Dongli [ji] 洞歴紀, presumably a study of historical precedents, by Zhou Shu 周樹

Dongzheng fu 東征賦 "Rhapsody on on an Eastward Journey" by Ban Zhao 班昭

Duduan 獨斷 "Solitary Decisions[?]" by Cai Yong 蔡邕

Fa yan 法言 by Yang Xiong 楊雄 of Former Han, commentary by Hou Ba 侯芭

Fan Han Fei 反韓非 "Against Han Feizi" by Liu Tao 劉陶

Fanshi xue 樊侯學 "Teachings of the Marquis Fan" by Fan Shu 樊鯈/

Fanshi xue 樊氏學 "Teachings of Mr Fan" by Fan Ying 樊英: a commentary to the Book of Changes q.v. above

Feng-Shan shu 封禪書 "Treatise on the Feng and Shan Sacrifices" by Yang Zhong 楊終

Feng-Shan yi ji 封禪儀記, "Record of the Observance of the Feng and Shan Sacrifices" by Ma Dibo 馬第伯

Fengsu tongyi 風俗通義 "A Compendium of Popular Customs" by Ying Shao 應劭

Fu Meng Ke 復孟軻 "In Support of Mencius" by Liu Tao 劉陶

Fuhou gujin zhu 伏侯古今注 "Notes of the Marquis Fu on Things Ancient and Modern" by Fu Wuji 伏無忌

Gan sao 感騷, an elegy for Qu Yuan, by Ying Feng 應奉

Guangcheng song 廣成頌 "Hymn to the Guangcheng Park" by Ma Rong 馬融

Guangwu shouming zhongxing song 光武受命中興頌 "Hymn on the Receipt of the Mandate and the Restoration" by Liu Cang 劉蒼, with commentary by Jia Kui 賈逵

Guijun tong 洼君通 "Explanations of Master Gui [on the Book of Changes]" by Gui Dan 洼丹

Guitian fu 歸田賦 "Rhapsody on Returning to the Fields" by Zhang Heng 張衡

Guo yu 國語, commentaries by Jia Kui 賈逵 ["Explanation and Commentary" 解詁], by Tang Gu 唐固 and by Yu Fan 虞翻

Han jiuyi 漢舊儀 "Ancient Han Ceremonial" ascribed to Cai Zhi 蔡質

Han jiuyi 漢舊儀, an account of the institutions of Former Han, by Wei Hong 衛宏

Han shi 漢詩 "Poems of Han," by Wang Yi 王逸

Han shi 漢事 "Affairs of Han" by Ying Feng 應奉

Han shu houxu 漢書後序 "Postscript to the History of Han" by Ying Feng 應奉

Han shu 漢書 by Ban Biao 班彪, Ban Gu 班固, Ban Zhao 班昭 and others; commentary by Ying Shao 應劭

Han song 漢頌 "Hymns of Han" by Cao Shuo 曹朔

Han yi 漢儀 "Han Ceremonial" ascribed to Cai Zhi 蔡質

Han yi 漢議, a compendium of legal cases and precedents, by Ying Shao 應劭

Han yu 漢語, a collection of moral tales, by Xun Shuang 荀爽

Hande chunqiu 漢德春秋 by He Ying 何英

Hande song 漢德頌 "Hymns to the [Men of] Virtue of Han" by Liu Fu 劉復

Hanguan 漢官 or Hanguan mulu 漢官目錄; anonymous compilation on official titles

Hanguan dianzhi yishi xuanyong 漢官典職儀式選用 "Administrative Observances of the Han Official System Selected for Use" by Cai Zhi 蔡質

Hanguan liyi gushi 漢官禮儀故事 "Ceremonial Precedents for Han Offices" by Ying Shao 應劭

Hanguan mulu 漢官目錄 see Hanguan 漢官

Hanguan yi 漢官儀 "Ceremonial of Han Offices" by Ying Shao 應劭

Hanguan zhu 漢官注 "Notes on Han Offices" by Ying Shao 應劭

Hanji 漢紀, a chronicle of Former Han, by Xun Yue 荀悅

Hanji 漢記 see Dongguan Hanji 東觀漢記

Hanlü zhangju 漢律章句 and similar titles, commentaries to the laws of Han compiled variously by Guo Lingqing [possibly Guo Hong 郭弘/ or his son Guo Gong 郭躬], by Ma Rong 馬融, by Shusun Xuan 叔孫宣 and by Zheng Xuan 鄭玄

Hanmo yingxiong ji 漢末英雄記 "Records of the Heroes and Champions at the End of Han" by Wang Can 王粲

Hanzhong qijiu zhuan 漢中耆舊傅, "Venerable Men and Ancient Affairs of Hanzhong" by Zhu Gui 祝龜

Hetu Luoshu 河圖洛書, "The Diagrams from the Yellow River and the Book from the Luo," works of divination; explanations by Zhu Cang 朱倉: He-Luo jie 河洛解, and see sub Yang Tong 楊統

He-Luo jiaoji 河洛交集 "Connected Collection to [the Diagrams from] the Yellow River and [the Book from] the Luo" by Jing Luan 景鸞 [and see sub Book of Changes and Classic of Poetry above]

Hou Han shu 後漢書 by Xie Cheng 謝承

Huainan zi 淮南子, commentaries by Gao You 高誘 and by Ma Rong 馬融

Huang Xi bian 皇羲篇, a study of the legendary emperor Fuxi 伏羲, by Liu Hong 劉宏, Emperor Ling

Huangde zhuan 皇徳傳 "An Account of Sovereign Virtue" by Hou Jin 侯瑾

Hunli ye wen 婚禮謁文, on the ceremonial for visits at times of marriage, by Zheng Zhong 鄭眾

Hunyi zhu 渾儀注, a commentary on the armillary sphere, by Zhang Heng 張衡

Ji jing 針經, a treatise on acupuncture, by the Old Man of the Fu River 涪翁老父

Jiaduan song 嘉瑞頌, hymn in honour of a phoenix and a dragon, by Yang Zhong 楊終

Jian lun 檢論 by Zou Bin 鄒邠: a commentary on the Xin lun 新論 of Huan Tan 桓譚

Jianwu zhuji 建武注記 "Diary of the Jianwu Period" [originally Shizu benji 世祖本紀] by Ban Gu 班固, Chen Zong 陳宗, Du Fu 杜撫, Ma Yan 馬嚴 and Meng Ji 孟冀

Jiaoshi lun 矯世論 "A Discussion on Reform" by Hou Jin 侯瑾

Jiaozhou yiwu zhi 交州異物志, a collectanea of strange matters from south China by Yang Fu 楊孚 [and see Yiwu zhi]

Jiebin fu 解擯賦 "Rhapsody to Explain [my] Rejection" by Zhao Yi 趙壹

Jieyi 譏義 "Censures" by Wang Chong 王充

Ji-Han fuchen zan 季漢輔臣贊 "Praises of Ministers Who have Supported Junior Han" by Yang Xi 楊戲/

Jihui pian 記誨篇, a text on conduct, by Su Jing 蘇竟

Jin dan jue 金丹訣 [an ancient Taoist text], commentary by Yin Changsheng 陰長生

Jin dao 琴道 "On the Art of the Lute" by Huan Tan 桓譚, completed by Ban Gu 班固

Jingfang songshuo 經方頌說 "Eulogy and Explanation of the Classical Arts" by Li Zhu 李助

Jingzhou xing jing 荆州星經, a list of celestial omens compiled on the orders of Liu Biao 劉表 [also known as Jingzhou xing zhuan 荊州星傳]

Jingzhou xing zhuan 荆州星傳 or Jingzhou zhan 荆州占, a list of celestial omens, by Liu Rui 劉叡

Jisu 譏俗 "On Common Morality" by Wang Chong 王充

Jiugong fu 九宮賦 "Rhapsody on the Nine Palaces" by Huang Xiang 黃香

Jiuzhang suanshu 九章算術 "Nine Chapters on the Art of Mathematics," compiled in Qin and Former Han, with Later Han additions, completed in the first century AD; commentary by Liu Hong 劉洪, and see sub Zheng Zhong 鄭眾

Jiuzhang suanshu 九章算術 "Nine Chapters on the Art of Mathematics;"

Jizhou ji 冀州記, a history of Ji province, by Xun Wei 荀緯

Jueshi dumu 決事都目 "General Principles for Deciding Cases" by Chen Chong 陳寵

Kongzi ban 孔子版 "Tablet of Confucius," an oracular work

Kongzi jiayu 孔子家語 "Home Sayings of Confucius," allegedly a forgery by Wang Su 王肅

Kuang Laozi 匡老子 "In Support of Laozi" by Liu Tao 劉陶

Laozi ming 老子銘 stele composed by Bian Shao 邊韶

Laozi 老子 [Daode jing 道徳經], commentaries by Dong Yu 董遇 [Laozi xunzhu 老子訓注], by Ma Rong 馬融 and by Yu Fan 虞翻

Li lue 禮略 "Outline of the Ritual" by Jing Luan 景鸞, a study of divination techniques

Li lun 歴論 "Essay on the Calendar" by Jia Kui 賈逵

Li sao 離騷 of Qu Yuan 屈原, commentaries by Ban Gu 班固, by Jia Kui 賈逵 [both as Li sao jing zhangju 離騷經章句] and by Ma Rong 馬融

Li shi 隸勢, an essay on aspects of the "Clerical Style," by Zhong [personal name unknown]

Liangdu fu 兩都賦 "Rhapsody on the Two Capitals" by Ban Gu 班固

Lienü zhuan 列女傳 "Biographies of Women;" commentary by Ma Rong 馬融 either to the work compiled by Liu Xiang 劉向 of Former Han or to the relevant chapter of the Han shu 漢書 of Ban Gu 班固 et al.

Lieyi zhuan 列異傳 "Chronicle of Strange Events" compiled by Cao Pi 曹丕

Lingdi ji 靈帝紀 by Liu Ai 劉艾

Lingguang dian fu 靈光殿賦 "Rhapsody on the Hall of Numinous Brilliance" by Wang Yanshou 王延夀

Ling xian 靈憲 "The Spiritual Constitution of the Universe" by Zhang Heng 張衡

Lishi yaolu 李氏藥錄 by Li Dangzhi 李當之

Louke fa 漏刻法, a manual on the clepsydra, by Yin Kui 殷馗/

Louke jing 漏刻經, on the clepsydra, by Huo Rong 霍融

Lüli yi 律曆意 "Treatise on Pitchpipes and the Calendar" by Cai Yong 蔡邕 and Liu Hong 劉洪

Lun du fu 論都賦 "Rhapsody on the Capitals" by Du Du 杜篤

Lun heng 論衡 "Discourses Weighed in the Balance" by Wang Chong 王充

Lun jiujun wei 論舊君諱, an essay on the ancient use of taboo names, by Wang Lang 王朗 and Zhang Zhao 張昭

Lun wen 論文 "Essay on Literature" by Cao Pi 曹丕

Luoshen fu 洛神賦 "Rhapsody on the Goddess of the Luo River" by Cao Zhi 曹植

Luoshu 洛書 "The Book from the Luo River," a text of divination, see sub Yang Tong 楊統

Lüshi chunqiu 呂氏春秋, commentary by Gao You 高誘

Meng fu 夢賦 "Dream Rhapsody" by Wang Yanshou

Mingshi lun 明世論, on current affairs, by Du Du 杜篤

Mouzi 牟子 by Mou Rong 牟融

Mouzi 牟子 [not by Mou Rong], a Buddhist apologia attributed to a retired scholar-official of Cangwu in the second century AD [see Zürcher 59:13].

Nanbei jiao guanmian chefu zhidu 南北郊冠冕車服制度 "Regulations for the Caps, Crowns, Carriages and Robes for the Northern and Southern Sacrifices [to Heaven and to Earth]" by Liu Cang 劉蒼 and others

Nandu fu 南都賦 "Rhapsody on the Southern Capital" by Zhang Heng 張衡

Nanyang wenxueguan zhi 南陽文學官志 "Account of the Literary Office in Nanyang" by Cui Yuan 崔瑗

Nei chan 内讖 [apocrypha], commentary/explanation by Yang Tong 楊統

Niaoqing zhan 鳥情占, on prognostication by the appearance of birds, by Wang Qiao 王喬

Nü jie 女誡 "Precepts for Women" by Ban Zhao 班昭

Nü jie 女誡 "Precepts for Women" by Du Du 杜篤

Nü jie 女誡 "Precepts for Women" by Xun Shuang 荀爽

Nü xun 女訓 "Advice for women" by Cai Yong 蔡邕

Nushe bifa 弩射祕法, a textbook on the crossbow, by Liu Chong 劉寵

Pang xi pian 滂喜篇 by Jia Fang 賈魴/, a commentary to the calligraphy manual Cang jie 蒼頡, originally composed by the minister Li Si 李斯 of Qin

Pei wang tonglun 沛王通論 "Comprehensive Essays by the King of Pei" by Liu Fu 劉輔

Poqun lun 破羣論 "Discussion on Eliminating Factions" by Liu Liang/Cen 劉梁/

Qi feng 七諷 "Seven Incitements" by Fu Yi 傅毅

Qi shuo 七說 "The Seven Discussions" by Huan Lin 桓麟/ and Huan Bin 桓彬

Qi tan 七歎 "Seven Laments" by Li You 李尤

Qi xu 七序 "Seven Essays" by Liang Song 梁竦

Qi yao lun 七曜論 "The Seven Heavenly Bodies" by Liu Tao 劉陶

Qi'ai shi 七哀詩 "Poem of Seven Sorrows" by Wang Can 王粲

Qianfu lun 潛夫論 "Comments of a Recluse" by Wang Fu 王符

Qiju zhu 起居注 "Diary of Activity and Repose" for Emperor Ming, compiled under the auspices of the Lady Ma , his widowed Empress and Dowager

Qiping 其平, on prognostication, by Yang You 楊由

Renwu zhi 人物志 "Record of Men and Things" by Liu Shao 劉邵

Renxiao lun 仁孝論 "Essay on Humanity and Filial Piety" by Yan Du 延篤

Sanfu jiushi 三輔舊事, an account of the region about Chang'an, by Wei Biao 韋彪

Sanfu juelu 三輔決錄 "Evaluative Records of the Three Adjuncts" by Zhao Qi 趙岐/

Sanzhou lun 三州論 "Essay on the Three Provinces" by Jiang Ji 蔣濟

Shanghan lun 傷寒論 "Dissertation on Typhoid Fever" by Zhang Ji 張機

Shanyang xianxian zhuan 山陽先賢傳 "Accounts of Worthy Men of the Past of Chenliu" by Zhongchang Tong 仲長統

Shen Nong bencao jing 神農本草經 pharmacopeia ascribed to Hua Tuo and Zhang Ji 張機, compiled by Wu Pu 吳普

Shenjian 申監 "Extended Reflections" by Xun Yue 荀悅

Shenjue song 神雀頌 "Hymn to the Sacred Birds" by Jia Kui 賈逵

Shenqing fu 申情賦 "Expressing my Feelings" by Ma Zhi 馬芝

Shi ben 世本, a treatise on government, by Song/Zong Zhong /宗忠/

Shi fa 諡法, a study of posthumous titles, by Liu Xi 劉熙

Shi hui 釋誨 "Instruction Explained" by Cai Yong 蔡邕

Shi ji 史記 by Sima Qian 司馬遷, revised and extended by Yang Zhong 楊終

Shi ming 釋名 dictionary by Liu Xi 劉熙

Shi ming 釋名 dictionary by Liu Zhen 劉珍

Shibi wen 石壁文 by Fan Ying 樊英

Shiwu lun 世務論 "Essays on Affairs of the World" by He Wen 何汶

Shiyao lun 時要論 "Essay on the Needs of the Time" by Wang Ji 王基

Shizu benji 世祖本紀, annals of the reign of Emperor Guangwu, see Jianwu zhuji

Shu ke 屬科, administrative code of Shu-Han, compiled by Zhuge Liang 諸葛亮, Fa Zheng 法正, Li Yan 李嚴, Liu Ba 劉巴 and Yin Ji 尹籍

Shuowen jiezi 說文解字 dictionary by Xu Shen 許愼

Shushu ji yi 數術記遺, "Memoir on some Traditions of Mathematical Art, " largely concerned with Taoism and divination, by Xu Yue 徐岳

Si chou 四愁 "Four Sorrows" poem by Zhang Heng 張衡

Simin yueling 四民月令 "Monthly Ordinances for the Four Categories of People" by Cui Shi 崔寔/

Siti shushi 四體書勢 "Aspects of the Four Styles of Calligraphy" by Wei Ji 衛覬

Sixuan fu 思玄賦 "Contemplating the Cosmos" by Zhang Heng 張衡

Sun Jian 孫堅 and Sun Ce 孫策, biographies by Zhang Hong 張纮

Sunzi bingfa 孫子[]兵法 "The Art of War" ascribed to Sun Wu; commentaries by Cao Cao 曹操 and by Shen You 沈友

Taiping jing 太平經 see Gan Ji 干吉, Gong Chong 宫崇, Xiang Kai 襄楷

Taiping qingling shu/dao 太平淸/青領書/ see Gan Ji 干吉, Gong Chong 宮崇, Xiang Kai 襄楷

Taixuan jing 太玄經 "Classic of the Great Mystery" by Yang Xiong 楊雄 of Former Han; commentaries by Cui Yuan 崔瑗, by Hou Ba 侯芭, by Lu Ji 陸績, by Song/Zong Zhong /宗忠/, by Zhang Heng 張衡 and by Zou Bin 鄒邠

Tangzi 唐子 by Tang Qiang 唐羌

Tangzi 唐子 by Tang Tan 唐檀

Tanqi jing 彈棊經, a treatise on a form of chess, by Liang Ji 梁冀

Tongren lun 金人論 "Discussion by the Metal Men" by Wang Jing 王景

Han shu 漢書: Treatise on the Heavens 天文志 and Introduction to the Table of Officials 百官公卿表 by Ma Xu 馬續

Waiqi zhen 外戚箴 "Exhortations to the Consort Clan" by Cui Qi 崔琦

Wang Zhi 王稺/, biography compiled by his disciples

Wangming lun 王命論 "Essay on the Mandate" by Ban Biao 班彪

Wangzi 王子 by Wang You, collated by Wang Huo 王濩/

Wanji lun 萬機論 "Myriad Subtleties" by Jiang Ji 蔣濟

Wei qingzi 韋卿子 "The Book of Minister Wei," the collected works of Wei Biao 韋彪

Wei zhi 慰志 "Rhapsody of Regret" by Cui Zhuan 崔篆

Weizi 魏子 by Wei Lang 魏朗

Wen shen 問神 "Question to the Gods" by Zhou Jizhen 周季貞

White Tiger Hall Discussions, see Bohu tong 白虎通

Wujia yaoshuo zhangju 五家要說章句 "Detailed Commentary to Major Points of the Five Classics" by Liu Zhuang 劉莊, Emperor Ming, and Huan Yu 桓郁 q.v.

Wujing yiyi 五經異義 "Different Meanings of the Five Classics" by Xu Shen 許愼

Wushi bencao 吳氏本草, a pharmacological work, by Wu Pu 吳普

Wuxing zhangju 五行章句, a detailed commentary on the school of the Five Powers, by Liu Zhuang 劉莊, Emperor Ming

Wuxing zhi 五行志 "Treatise on Portents/the Five Powers" by Dong Ba 董巴

Wuyi zhi ge 五噫之歌 "Five Exclamations" by Liang Hong 梁鴻

Wu-Yue chunqiu 吳越春秋 by Zhao Ye 趙曄, with a supplement 外記 by Zhang Xia 張遐

Wuyue zhenxing tu 五嶽眞形圖 "Veritable Images of the Five Sacred Peaks," a set of mystical diagrams, also known as Wuyue tu 五岳圖; see Lu Nüsheng 鲁女生, Feng Heng 封衡 [or Feng Junda 君達] and Zuo Ce 左慈

Xiandi ji 靈帝紀 by Liu Ai 劉艾

Xiangsu ji 鄕俗記 "Record of Local Customs [of Shu commandery]" by Zhao Ning 趙寗

Xianshi fu 顯士賦 "Revealing my Aspirations" by Feng Yan 馮衍

Xiaoxue Hanguan pian 小學漢官篇 "Han Offices Explained for Beginning Students" by Wang Long 王隆, with commentary by Hu Guang 胡廣

Xidu fu 西都賦 "Rhapsody on the Western Metropolis" by Zhang Heng 張衡

Xin li 新禮 "New Rituals" by Cao Bao 曹褒

Xin lun 新論 by Huan Tan 桓譚, commentary by Zou Bin 鄒邠: Jian lun 檢論

Xin shu 新書, the collected works of Xun Shuang 荀爽

Xingli lun 刑禮論 "Essay on Criminal Law and Ritual" by Liu Yi 劉廙 and Ding Yi 丁廙

Xuan si 玄思 by Zou Bin 鄒邠: a commentary to the Taixuan jing 太玄經 "Classic of the Great Mystery" by Yang Xiong 楊雄 of Former Han

[Yang Tong] jiafa zhangju 楊統家法章句, a handbook and commentary to his school of thought, by Yang Tong

Yangxing jing 養性經, a Taoist treatise on cultivation of the spirit, by Wu Guang 巫光

Yangxing shu 養性書 "On Macrobiotics" by Wang Chong 王充

Yaoyan 要言 "Precepts" by Chen Rong 陳融

Yi fa 醫法, on medicine, by Ji Liao 薊遼

Yi treatises to Dongguan Hanji by Cai Yong 蔡邕

Ying binnan 應賓難 "Replies to Questions from a Guest" by Hou Jin 侯瑾

Ying xian 應閒 "Response [to Criticism] of my Idleness" by Zhang Heng 張衡

Yingwu fu 鸚鵡賦 "Parrot Rhapsody" by Ni Heng 禰衡

Yingxiong ji 英雄記 see Hanmo yingxiong ji 漢末英雄記 by Ying Shao 應劭

Yishi 弈勢, a treatise on the art of chess, by Ying Chang 應瑒

Yiwu zhi 異物志, a general collectanea of strange matters, by Yang Fu 楊孚 [and see Jiaozhou yiwu zhi]

Yuanyi huaide geshi 遠夷懷德歌詩 "Songs of the Distant Barbarians Embracing the Virtue [of Han]" presented by the Zuodu 莋都 people [see sub Tangzou 唐菆]

Yuanyi lede geshi 遠夷樂德歌詩 "Songs of the Distant Barbarians Delighting in the Virtue [of Han]" presented by the Zuodu people [see sub Tangzou]

Yuanyi mude geshi 遠夷慕德歌詩 "Songs of the Distant Barbarians Longing for the Virtue [of Han]" presented by the Zuodu people[see sub Tangzou]

Yue jue shu 越絕書, a historical gazetteer, by Yuan Kang 袁康? or by Zhao Ye 趙曄? or by other writers 15

Yueling zhangju 月令章句, commentary to an ancient calendrical text, by Jing Luan 景鸞

Yue niu lu 越紐錄, a historical work, by Wu Jungao 吳君高

Yufu zhi 輿服志 "Treatise on Carriages and Robes" by Dong Ba 董巴

Yukou lun 禦寇論 "Discussion on How to Resist the Insurgents" by Zhao Qi 趙岐/

Yuntian tu 惲天圖, a chart of the heavens, by Lu Ji 陸績

Zeng Boma wang Biao 曾白馬王彪 poem "To Cao Biao, King of Boma" by Cao Zhi 曹植

Zhanghua fu 章華賦 "Rhapsody on the Zhanghua Pavilion" by Bian Rang 邊讓

Zhanguo ce 戰國策, commentary by Gao You 高誘

Zhen "Exhortations" compiled by Yang Xiong 楊雄 of Former Han, supplemented by Cui Yin 崔駰, Cui Yuan 崔瑗 and Liu Tao 劉陶

Zhen ling 箳鉻 "Admonitions Engraved in Stone" by Yuan Wenshu 袁文術

Zheng lun 政論 "An Essay on Government" by Cui Shi 崔寔/

Zheng lun 政論 "An Essay on Government" by Liu Yi 劉廙

Zheng wu 政務 "On Government" by Wang Chong 王充

Zheng zhi 鄭志, on questions in the classics, by Zheng Xuan 鄭玄, compiled by his students

Zhenmai fa 診脉法, a treatise on medicine, by the Old Man of the Fu River 涪翁老父

Zhong lun 中論 "Discussions of the Mean" by Xu Gan 徐幹

Zhou bei suan jing 周髀算經 "The Arithmetical Classic of the Gnomon and the Circular Paths of Heaven;" commentary by Zhao Junqing 趙君卿 q.v.

Zhuan shi 篆勢, an essay on aspects of the traditional Seal Script, by Cai Yong 蔡邕

Zhuide fu 追德賦 "Rhapsody of Virtue Remembered" by Liu Hong 劉宏, Emperor Ling

1 On the historiography of HHS see Bn 54, Hulsewé 61 and, on the Treatises, MBeck 90.

2 On the historiography of SGZ see deC 70 and deC 90.533-589.

3 When a fragment of a work is cited by a commentary to Hou Han shu or to Sanguo zhi, the reference is given to that commentator rather than to a modern collection or edition.

4 In 72 Ban Gu was appointed to chair the committee of historians commissioned by Emperor Ming to compile the annals of the reign of Emperor Guangwu 世祖本紀 Ban Gu and his colleague Yin Min evidently represented the interest of the Dou family, their fellow committee-members Meng Ji and Ma Yan were chosen to represent the rival faction of the Empress Ma, and two other scholars were neutral. Their work, initially known as the "Diary of the Jianwu Period" 建武注記, became the first part of Dongguan Hanji.

In 120 Liu Taotu and his cousin Liu Yi were commissioned to work with Liu Zhen and Li You on the official history of Later Han, later known as Dongguan Hanji 東觀漢記. The history had been started by Ban Gu and others under orders from Emperor Ming, with the initial title "Diary of the Jianwu Period" 建武注記. This second instalment contained annals for the period 58 to 106, being the reigns of Emperors Ming, Zhang, He and the infant Shang, together with tables and biographies of leading men, imperial relatives by marriage and noted scholars, and the whole compilation was now entitled Han ji 漢記 "Record of Han."

Early in the reign of Emperor Huan, about 151, the government controlled by the Empress Liang Nüying and her brother Liang Ji ordered a third instalment of the "Records of Han" 漢記 Han ji, official history of the Later Han dynasty, known later as Dongguan Hanji 東觀漢記. The chief scholars involved at this time were Fu Wuji, Huang Jing, Cui Shi, Bian Shao and Yan Du, and the compilation included annals, tables of kings and marquises, accounts of the Xiongnu and the Qiang. Fu Wuji and Huang Jing also compiled a Treatise of Geography 地理志, which was evidently edited by Sima Biao to compose the Treatise of Administrative Geography 郡國志 for his Xu Han shu.

Through the 150s and early 160s the committee continued work on this third instalment of the official "Record of Han" 漢記, adding a Table of the Bureaucracy and biographies of empresses and other individuals, including the eunuchs Cai Lun and Sun Cheng. Scholars identified as taking part in the project at one time or another include Cui Shi, Yan Du, Deng Si, Bian Shao, Cao Shou and Zhu Mu.

Probably in 177 a further continuation was ordered by Emperor Ling. The senior scholar was Ma Midi, and other members of the committee were Cai Yong, Han Yue, Lu Zhi and Yang Biao. Their work included annals for emperors An and Shun, for the infants Chong and Zhi and for Emperor Huan, with biographies updated to the end of the reign of Emperor Huan in 168. It was at this time that the history acquired the name of Dongguan Hanji 東觀漢記, from the Eastern Pavilion of the Southern Palace, where the library and workrooms were located.

In addition to the co-operative compilation, Cai Yong also composed ten Treatises from the official archives and from material passed to him by his former teacher Hu Guang. [These treatises were known as yi instead of zhi to avoid taboo on the personal name of Emperor Huan.] Cai Yong later compiled also the Annals of the reign of Emperor Ling, but that work was soon lost.

In the early 220s, after the abdication of Emperor Xian in favour of Cao Pi, first Emperor of Wei, the elder statesman Yang Biao continued and completed the history down to the end of the Han dynasty.

See Bn [54], 10-11. MBeck [90], 19-27, Texts, 471-472 [Bielenstein and Loewe]

5 Huayang guo zhi is a well-organised and valuable history of Yi province, present-day Sichuan, with a quantity of detail, though it frequently contains material that is anecdotal and/or appears unreliable. Transmission, however, is far less secure than that of standard histories such as HHS and SGZ, and there are many places where names and dates are confused. Where HYGZ is clearly in error, I have not indexed or itemised the variants.

6 The text of this work, now in fragments, is not always reliable. The history contains many anecdotes and accounts of unusual behaviour, with some references to Qin and Former Han.

7 HHS 79/69A:2545; Texts, Bn 79:184-197, and Tjan 49. Bold lettering indicates the citation system used in this work.

8 An asterisk * indicates that the school was represented by an Academician at the University.

9 See Texts:234-241 [Boltz] and 293-297 [Riegel].

10 The Qing school was initially represented by an Academician at the University, but was later disestablished.

11 After Liu Zhuang 劉莊, Emperor Ming, came to the throne in 57, the surname Zhuang was tabooed as Yan .

12 Emperor Guangwu established a chair for Zuo zhuan, but allowed it to lapse a few years later.

13 Though the Analects were not represented by a chair at the University, they were included in the Stone Classics of 175 at the expense of the Poetry: see sub Cai Yong.

14 The Er ya dictionary is listed by HS 30:1718 in the section allocated to the Book of Filial Piety. Its history is discussed by Texts: 94-99 [South Coblin].

15 See Texts: 490-493 [Scheussler and Loewe].

Rafe de Crespigny