Michael Loewe

Titles of Officials

A Biographical Dictionary of the Qin, Former Han and Xin Periods (221 BC - AD 24)

Fortunately for historians of the early empires, the Han shu includes a chapter that lists the senior posts of imperial government and their incumbents, and a number of scholars have set out to formulate the principles upon which those institutions were based and to relate them to the activities of officials as described in other chapters of the histories. 1 As the present volume does not set out to provide a history of China’s early institutions, there is little reason to include a detailed account of such matters here. The summary that follows below is intended to do no more than to provide the context within which most of the subjects of these biographies lived and worked.

The highest responsibility for the empire rested with the three, and later two, most senior officials of the central government, usually entitled the Chancellor (Chengxiang 丞相), Imperial Counsellor (Yushi dafu 御史大夫) and, for a short time, the Supreme Commander (Taiwei 太尉). Ranking below these senior statesmen there were nine ministers of state (Jiu qing 九卿) who bore specialist responsibilities for named aspects of administration, ranging from religious observances to the collection of tax, from the security of the capital city to the reception of state visitors. Each one of the nine supervised the work of a number of subordinate officials who were charged with tasks such as providing medical care for the imperial family, supervising the manufacture of luxury goods, the upkeep of the imperial stables or the registration of land. The directors (Ling ) of these offices were supported by a staff of assistants. At the same time the members of the Secretariat (Shangshu 尙書) provided advice and assistance directly to the emperor, and the powers of its director were in time to outstrip those of the most senior officials of the civil service proper. Honorary titles (Jia guan 加官), which were bestowed on persons of promise without a fixed quota, carried no specific duties but provided them with easy access to the court. Established posts existed for a few generals, such as General of the Van (Qian Jiangjun 前將軍); other titles which were bestowed temporarily and as occasion demanded were at times no more than an honorary epithet; sometimes they signified the task or campaign for which a senior army officer had been commissioned.

The major provincial divisions of the empire were those of the kingdoms (Guo ) and commanderies (Jun ). Kingdoms, which had not existed during Qin, were entrusted to the near relatives of the emperor and held on an hereditary basis for life, except for deprivation owing to crime. The reduction of their extent and power accompanied the consolidation of the strength of the central government. Senior officials were appointed on a personal basis to be governors (Shou , or Taishou 太守) of the commanderies for a limited period, being subject to promotion or demotion. Both the kings and the governors were supported by subordinate staff who included the Magistrates (Ling , or Zhang ) who were responsible for administering the constituent counties (Xian ) of the kingdoms and the commanderies. The counties and the towns that they included were further sub—divided into districts (Xiang ) and wards, or hamlets (Li ). In addition the kingdoms and commanderies included areas that had been made over to the Nobles (Hou ) with authority to raise tax and maintain law and order. Nobilities were held on an hereditary basis. From 106 onwards special officials (Cishi 刺史, later Mu ) were appointed to inspect the efficiency and honesty of the senior provincial administrators.

In all, a sense of hierarchy informed the institutions of government and the system of officials. The same principle was evident in the scale of official grades and salaries, the acknowledgement of fourteen grades for imperial consorts and the system of twenty orders of honour (Jue ) that rewarded meritorious service.

The English expressions used for official titles in this book are in general those that appeared in the Cambridge History of China, volume I and certain other publications. As the Chinese terms acompany them on their first occurrence in an entry throughout the biographical list, it has not been deemed necessary to include an alphabetical list of the English terms here. The first list of Chinese terms which follows below includes both those that are adopted here and, in parenthesis, those which are used in major publications, such as those of Dubs, Bielenstein and de Crespigny. For ease of use, a second list, giving the terms used in other publications, allows for cross—reference. The two lists include only those terms which appear in this book. Where the meaning of a title still requires elucidation, or if doubts remain regarding the duties or position of an official, and in the case of especially commissioned generals, a term is left as such without an English expression.

There can be no ideal solution to the vexed problem of how best to render these titles in English. A case can certainly be made for presenting a literal translation, and I am well aware that a choice of terms on other principles, as has been made here, may involve the sacrifice of a clue to the origin, dignity or duties of a particular official (e.g., ‘Bearer of the Golden Mace’, for Zhijinwu 執金吾, is certainly more colourful than ‘Superintendent of the Capital’, as adopted here). Notwithstanding, I have thought fit to choose a term which indicates an official’s responsibilities, or his place in the organs of government, where possible in immediately meaningful terms; and in so far as imperial offices were organised on an hierarchical basis, it has been thought advisable to choose terms which convey some idea of an official’s degree of seniority.

Other difficulties abound. In many cases a Chinese title was itself changed, without necessarily implying a change in function or duty, and it may be questioned whether the same English expression should be used irrespectively for each version. At times it may not be possible to choose a term which describes or alludes to an official’s function, simply because there is insufficient information with which to do so, despite the efforts of commentators to clarify these matters over some two thousand years. In addition, the adoption of English terms that have an assured place in cultures or empires other than those of China may engender a false analogy or lead to misapprehension; and there is an ever ready need to avoid the use of a term which, so far from forming a recognisable element in imperial administration, may lead to mystification or even bathos. Part of the difficulty lies, as in other cultures, in the failure of the Chinese themselves to choose terms on a systematic basis.

In such circumstances, the choice of the terms that are used here attempts to denote the actual function of an official and his corresponding place in the civil service. Thus, despite considerable differences of Chinese nomenclature, the titles of the Nine Ministers of State include the same element, i.e., Superintendent, to indicate that they worked on terms of parity (e.g., Zhijinwu and Da Sinong 大司農 are rendered as Superintendent of the Capital and Superintendent of Agriculture, respectively); and in so far as those terms replaced those of Zhongwei 中尉 and Da Nongling 大農令, without a substantial change of responsibility, the same English expressions are used for those two earlier terms. 2 In the same way, the senior officials who were responsible for the commanderies were entitled Shou until 148 and thereafter Taishou 太守; and Wang Mang 王莽 adopted the terms Zuzheng 卒正, Lianshuai 連率, Dayin 大尹 or Dafu 大夫. 3 All these terms are rendered here as ‘Governor’, rather than as literal translations such as ‘Leaders of Combinations’ for Lianshuai.

Officials who administered a specialised department under the auspices of one of the Nine Ministers of State were usually entitled Ling, which is translated in such cases as ‘Director’; but as Ling is also used in other contexts, where necessary it is rendered otherwise (e.g., as the senior official of a large county, ‘Magistrate’). For Dafu 大夫,’ ‘Counsellor’ has been adopted in place of the traditional ‘Grandee’ in the belief that it conveys the function of such officials more accurately; where necessary the term is modified (e.g., ‘Advisory Official’, for Jian Dafu 諫大夫). 4 Titles of nobility, which usually followed from the estate where the noble was situated, are retained as such. To avoid confusion with specific European terms such as Marquis, the titles Hou Chehou 徹侯 and Liehou 列侯 are translated as ‘Noble’. For the same reason, the Chinese term Gong , used in pre-imperial times and again under Wang Mang, is retained as such, rather than being rendered as Duke. Zhuhouwang 諸侯王, not seen before Han usage, is translated as ‘King’. Where possible modem English expressions have been avoided, if there is doubt whether their implications applied to imperial government, e.g., to avoid an implication of a Qin or Han concept of jus or justitia, the title Tingwei 廷尉 is rendered as ‘Superintendent of Trials’ in preference for ‘Commandant of Justice’. The terms shou and jia are regularly rendered as ‘Acting’ and ‘Temporary’. In the absence of a detailed study of institutional history under Wang Mang, many of the titles chosen during his regime are left in transliteration, with no attempt at a rendering.

For military officials it has been possible to retain a system of seniority and rank that corresponds with that of other empires, i.e. with ‘General’ for Jiangjun 將軍,’Colonel’ for Xiaowei 校尉,’ Major’ for Sima 司馬 and ‘Captain’ for Hou . But it would be false to seek too close an identity; ‘general’ may imply no more than an independent adoption of the command of certain forces, or leadership of a given body of men that was not necessarily recognised officially. No attempt has been made to translate the titles of officials of the Xiongnu 匈奴 or other non—Chinese peoples.

Inevitably the choice of English terms involves some inconsistencies or anomalies. In particular, the rendering of Jingzhao Yin 京兆尹 as ‘Governor of the Capital’ and Zhijinwu as ‘ Superintendent of the Capital’ can only look odd, in so far as the Zhijinwu was the senior of the two officials. The choice of terms is however consistent, by maintaining ‘Governor’ for an official with specific territorial authority and ‘Superintendent’ for one of the Nine Ministers.

(a) Chinese Terms


Boshi Academician [Erudit] 博士
Boshi Dizi Pupil of the Academicians 博士弟子
Boshi Puye Supervisor of the Academicians [Supervisor of the Erudits] 博士僕射
Bubing Xiaowei Colonel, Infantry [Colonel of Foot Soldiers] 歩兵校尉
Bushi Sefu Bailiff of the Drying House 暴室嗇夫
Changle Weiwei Superintendent of the Guards (Changle Palace) [Commandant of the Changle Palace Guard] 長樂衛尉
Changshi Lang Gentleman in Permanent Attendance [Gentleman in Regular Attendance] 常侍郎
Changshui Xiaowei Changshui Colonel 長水校尉
Chengmen Jiangjun General of the City Gates 城門將軍
Chengmen Lingshi Clerk to Director, City Gates 城門令史
Chengmen Xiaowei Colonel of the City Gates 城門校尉
Chengxiang Chancellor [Lieutenant Chancellor] 丞相
Chengxiang Shi Clerk to the Chancellor 丞相史
Chengxiang Zhangshi Chief Clerk to the Chancellor 丞相長史
Cishi Regional Inspector [Inspector] 刺史
Da Changqiu Empress’ Chamberlain [Grand Prolonger of Autumn] 大長秋
Da Honglu Superintendent of State Visits [Grand Herald] 大鴻臚
Da Jiangjun General-in-Chief 大將軍
Da Jiangjun Wuku ling Director, General-in-Chief s Armoury [Prefect of the Arsenal] 大將軍武庫令
Da Nongling Superintendent of Agriculture [Grand Prefect/Chief of Agriculture] 大農令
Da Sikong Imperial Counsellor [Grand Minister of Works] 大司空
Da Sima Marshal of State [Commander-in-Chief] 大司馬
Da Sinong Superintendent of Agriculture [Grand Minister of Agriculture] 大司農
Da Sinong Zhongcheng Deputy to the Superintendent of Agriculture 大司農中丞
Da Situ Chancellor [Grand Minister over the Masses] 大司徒
Da Xingling Superintendent of State Visits [Prefect Grand Usher] 大行令
Dafu Counsellor [Grandee] 大夫
Dafu Governor (see under Zhu Meng 朱萌) 大夫
Dali Superintendent of Trials [Commandant of Justice] 大理
Dayin Governor [Grand Governor] 大尹
Dazhui (see under Sun Ji 孫汲) 大贅
Dian Shuguo Director of the Dependent States 典屬國
Dianke Superintendent of State Visits [Director of Guests] 典客
Dong Zhishi Eastern Weaving House 東織室
Du Liao Jiangjun General, Trans-Liao Command [General who crosses the Liao River] 度遼將軍
Duhu Protector General 都護
Duyou Investigator 督郵
Fangshi Master of the Occult Arts 方士
Fengchang Superintendent of Ceremonial [Upholder of Ceremonies] 奉常
Fengju Duwei Commandant, Imperial Carriages [Chief Commandant of Imperial Equipages] 奉車都尉
Fu Xiaowei Lieutenant Colonel 副校尉
Fucheng Noble of the Interior 附城
Fujie Ling Director, Insignia and Credentials [Prefect of Insignia and Credentials] 符節令
Fuma Duwei Commandant, Attendant Cavalry [Chief Commandant of Attendant Cavalry] 駙馬都尉
Gongcao Shi Official in the Bureau of Merit 功曹史
Gonggong Superintendent, Lesser Treasury 共エ
Gongju Ling Director of Official Carriages 公車令
Gongren Palace Maid 宮人
Goushun rongcong Attached as Supernumerary to the Imperial Palace Gardens 鉤盾冗從
Goushun Ling Director, Imperial Palace Gardens [Prefect Intendant of the Imperial Palace Gardens] 鉤盾令
Guan Duwei Commandant of the Passes [Chief Commandant of a Pass 關都尉
Guanglu Dafu Counsellor of the Palace [Imperial Household Grandee] 光祿大夫
Guangluxun Superintendent of the Palace [Superintendent of the Imperial Household] 光祿勳
Guannei Duwei Commandant, Interior 關內都尉
Guannei Hou Noble of the Interior 關內侯
Guo Jiang General of the State 國將
Hou Captain, Company Commander
Hou Jiangjun General of the Rear 後將軍
Hu Bei Jun Commissioner of the Northern Barracks 護北軍
Hu Ji Xiaowei Colonel, Foreign Cavalry [Colonel of Hu Cavalry] 胡騎校尉
Hu Qiang Xiaowei Colonel Protector of the Qiang [Colonel protecting the Tibetans] 護羌校尉
Huangmen Attendant at the Yellow Gates 黃門
Huangmen Lang Gentleman of the Yellow Gates 黃門郎
Huangmen Ling Director of the Yellow Gates [Prefect of the Yellow Gates 黃門令
Huangmen shi Lang Gentleman in Attendance at the Yellow Gates 黃門侍郎
Huangmen Shuzhe Writer of the Yellow Gates 黃門書者
Hucao Duwei Commandant, Grain Transport [Chief Commandant Protecting Grain Transport by water] 護漕都尉
Hujun Commissioner over the Army 護軍
Ji Duwei Commandant, Cavalry [Chief Commandant of Cavalry] 騎都尉
Ji Lang Gentleman of Cavalry 騎郎
Jia Guan (General term for Honorary Titles, without quota) [Concurrent Offices] 加官
Jia Jian Inspector of the Household 家監
Jia Ling Director of the Household [Prefect of the Household] 家令
Jiacheng Household Assistant 家丞
Jian Inspector
Jian[yi] Dafu Advisory Counsellor [Grandee Remonstrant] 諫[議]大夫
Jiangjun General 將軍
Jiangxue Dafu Counsellor, Canonical Texts 講學大夫
Jiangxue Jijiu Libationer, Canonical Texts 講學祭酒
Jiangyue Jijiu Libationer with Responsibility for Music 講樂祭酒
Jiangzuo Da Jiang Court Architect 將作大匠
Jijiu Libationer 祭酒
Jima Ling Director of Riding Horses [Prefect of the Stables for Riding Horses] 騎馬令
Jing fu Duwei Commandant, Governor of the Capital [Chief Commandant of the Adjunct Capital Region] 京輔都尉
Jingbu Cheng Assistant at the Capital 京部丞
Jingzhao Duwei Commandant of the Capital [Chief Commandant of the Adjunct Capital Region] 京兆都尉
Jingzhao Yin Governor of the Capital 京兆尹
Jishi with honorary title of 給事
Jiu Qing Nine Ministers of State [Nine Ministers] 九卿
Juji Duwei Commandant, Chariots and Cavalry 車騎都尉
Juji Jiangjun General of Chariots and Cavalry 車騎將軍
Jun hou Captain in the Forces 軍候
Jun Jian Military Inspector 軍監
Jun Zheng Military Controller 軍正
Ku Ling Director of Stores 庫令
Lang Gentleman
Langzhong Gentleman of the Palace 郎中
Langzhong Hu Jiang Leader at the Gates, Gentlemen of the Palace [General of the Gentlemen-of-the-Palace of the Doors] 郎中戶將
Langzhong Jiang Leader of the Gentlemen of the Palace 郎中將
Langzhong Ling Superintendent of the Palace [Prefect of the Gentlemen-of-the-Palace] 郎中令
Lantai Ling shi Clerk to Director, Lantai Depository [Foreman Clerk of the Orchid Terrace] 蘭臺令史
Liang Jiazi Member of a well-established family 良家子
Lianshuai Governor [Leader of Combinations] 連率
Ling Shi (a) Junior official of a county (b) Magistrate’s clerk [Foreman Clerk] 令史
Ling Magistrate [Prefect]
Linxi Ling Director, Sacrificial Stores and Animals [Prefect of the Office of Sacrificial Oblations and Victims] 廩犧令
Lingyin Senior Minister 令尹
Mu Regional Commissioner [Shepherd]
Nanzi Male of adult age, without orders of honour 男子
Nayan Superintendent of Agriculture 納言
Neiguan Zhang Chief of the Inner Palace Office 內官長
Neishi Metropolitan Superintendent [Clerk of the Capital] 內史
Nong Duwei Commandant, Agriculture [Chief Commandant of Agriculture] 農都尉
Pi Jiang Lieutenant General 裨將
Pian Jiangjun Detached General 偏將軍
Piaoji Jiangjun General of Cavalry on the Alert [General of Agile Cavalry] 驃騎將軍
Pingzhun Ling Director, Office for Price Stabilisation [Prefect of the Bureau of Equalisation and Standards] 平準令
Po Qiang Jiangjun Po Qiang General 破羌將軍
Puye Supervisor 僕射
Qian Jiangjun General of the Van 前將軍
Qiang Ji Xiaowei Colonel, Qiang Cavalry 羌騎校尉
Qiangnu Duwei Commandant, Strong Bowmen 強弩都尉
Qiangnu Jiangjun General, Strong Bowmen 強弩將軍
Qimen Attendant at the Gates (see HHSJJ 81.1b note) 期門
Qimen Lang Gentleman Attendant at the Gates 期門郎
Qingji Xiaowei Colonel of Light Cavalry 輕騎校尉
Qingju Jiangjun General, Light Chariots 輕車將軍
Qingju Shizhe Commissioner, Light Chariots 輕車使者
Sanji (Honorary title) [Cavalier Attendant] 散騎
Sefu Bailiff 嗇夫
Shang Dafu Senior Counsellor 上大夫
Shang Jiangjun, Jiang Supreme General 上將軍
Shangshu Dafu Counsellor of the Secretariat [Prefect of the Masters of Writing] 尙書大夫
Shangshu Ling Director of the Secretariat 尙書令
Shangshu Puye Deputy Director, Secretariat [Supervisor of the Masters of Writing] 尙書僕射
Shao Fu Junior Tutor 少傅
Shaofu Superintendent of the Lesser Treasury [Privy Treasury] 少府
Sheren Attached to the staff of, member of staff of [Member of the Suite] 舍人
Shesheng Xiaowei Colonel, Archers under Training [Colonel of Archers who Shoot by Sound] 射聲校尉
Shi Yushi Secretary in Attendance on the Imperial. Counsellor [Attending Secretary] (see Hulsewé,‘Shuo—wen Dictionary’, p. 254) 侍御史
Shilang Gentleman in Attendance 侍郎
Shiwu Deprived of orders of honour as a punishment for crime (see under (Kaizhang) 開章; HS 74, p. 3149 note; Hulsewé, Remnants of Han Law p. 216) 士伍
Shiyi Physician in Attendance [Attending Physician] 侍醫
Shizhong Palace Attendant (Honorary title) 侍中
Shizhong Jijiu Libationer, Palace Attendants 侍中祭酒
Shou Governor
Shuiheng Duwei Superintendent of Waterways and Parks [Chief Commandant of Waters and Parks] 水衡都尉
Shuling, Commandant (see HHS 12, p. 501 note) 屬令
Shuzhang Commandant (see HHS 13, p. 515 note) 屬長
Shuzheng Commandant (see HHS 3A, p. 4 note) 屬正
Shuzi Cadet 庶子
Sili Xiaowei, Sili Colonel, Internal Security [Colonel Director of Retainers] Sili from 7 BC; see HSBZ 11.8a; 75.31b, 86.7a notes; Bielenstein, Bureaucracy, pp. 84—5 司隸校尉
Sima Major 司馬
Siyun Deputy to the Marshal of State 司允
Sizhi Deputy to the Chancellor 司直
Sizhong Superintendent of the Palace 司中
Sou Su Duwei Commandant, Collection of Grain [Chief Commandant who Searches for Grain] 騪粟都尉
Tai Cang Ling Director of the Great Granary [Prefect of the Great Granary] 太倉令
Tai Fu Senior Tutor [Grand Tutor] 太傅
Taibao Grand Protector [Grand Guardian] 太保
Taichang Superintendent of Ceremonial [Grand Master of Ceremonies] 太常
Taipu Superintendent of Transport [Grand Coachman] 太僕
Taishi Grand Tutor [Grand Master] 太師
Taishi Ling Director, Astronomy [Prefect Grand Astrologer] 太史令
Taishou Governor [Grand Administrator] 太守
Taiwei Supreme Commander [Grand Commandant] 太尉
Taiyi Jian Inspector of Physicians-in-Chief [Inspector of the Grand Physician] 太醫監
Taiyi Ling Director of the Physicians-in-Chief [Prefect Grand Physician] 太醫令
Taizhong Dafu Grand Counsellor of the Palace [Grand Palace Grandee] 太中大夫
Taizi men Dafu Counsellor, Establishment of the Heir Apparent [Grandee at the Gate of the Heir Apparent] 太子門大夫
Taizi Shaofu Junior Tutor of the Heir Apparent 太子少傅
Taizi Shi You Jijiu Teacher, Friend, Libationer of the Heir Apparent 太子師友祭酒
Taizi Shuzi Cadet (Heir Apparent) 太子庶子
Taizi Taifu Senior Tutor to the Heir Apparent 太子太傅
Taizi Zhong Shuzi Palace Cadet, Heir Apparent 太子中庶子
Ting Zhang Village Head, Ward Head [ (a) Chief of a Commune; (b) Chief of an Officials’ Hostel] 亭長
Tingwei Superintendent of Trials [Commandant of Justice] 廷尉
Tingwei Ping Judicial Referee 廷尉平
Tingwei shi Clerk to the Superintendent of Trials 廷尉史
Tingwei You Jian Inspector of the Right, Superintendent of Trials 廷尉右監
Tunji Xiaowei Colonel, Garrison Cavalry 屯騎校尉
Wei Hou Guards’ Captain 衛候
Wei Jiangjun General of Defence 衛將軍
Wei Sima Guards’ Major [Major of the Guards] 衛司馬
Weiwei Superintendent of the Guards 衛尉
Weiyang Jiu Ling Director [Prefect] of Stables, Weiyang Palace 未央廏令
Wu guan Zhonglang Jiang Leader of the Gentleman of the Palace, all purposes [General of the Gentlemen-of-the-Household for all purposes] 五官中郎將
Wuji Changshi Cavalryman in Permanent Attendance 武騎常侍
Wuji Xiaowei Wu and Ji Colonel [Wu and Chi Colonels] (see Chen Zhi, Han shu xin zheng p. 452, Hulsewé CICA, p. 79 note 63) 戊己校尉
Xi Zhishi Western Weaving House 西織室
Xiangguo Chancellor of State 相國
Xiaoji Jiangjun General of Swift Cavalry [General of Resolute Cavalry] 驍騎將軍
Xiaowei Colonel 校尉
Xihe Superintendent of Agriculture (Distinguish the title of this name held by Liu Xin 劉歆 [1]) 羲和
Ya Jiang Subordinate General 亞將
Yeting Ling Director, Sleeping Apartments [Prefect of the Lateral Courts] 掖庭令
Yezhe Imperial Messenger, Royal Messenger [Internuncio] 謁者
Yi Guan Ling Director, Interpreters’ Office [Prefect of the Office of Interpreters] 譯官令
Yi Lang Gentleman Consultant 議郎
Yicao Consultative Bureau [Bureau of Consultation] 議曹
Yin Jian Inspector of Tunes [Inspector of Tones] 音監
Yizhong [jiu] Jian Inspector of Hunting Equipment 栘中[廏]監
You Cao Bureau Head of the Right 右曹
You Fufeng Metropolitan Superintendent of the Right [Western Sustainer] 右扶風
You Ji Jiang Cavalry General of the Right 右騎將
Youjiao Patrol Leader 游徼
You Neishi Metropolitan Superintendent of the Right [Clerk of the Western Part of the Capital] 右內史
You Quhou Captain, Brigade [Company] of the Right 右曲候
You Xiang Chancellor of the Right 右相
Youji Duwei Commandant, Roving Task force 游擊都尉
Yu yuan Junior Prison Official 獄掾
Yue fu yin jian Inspector of Tones, Bureau of Music 樂府音監
Yueji Xiaowei Colonel, Picked Cavalry 越騎校尉
Yufu Ling Director, Palace Wardrobe [Prefect of the Imperial Wardrobe] 御府令
Yulin Elite Yulin [Feathered Forest] Corps 羽林
Yulin Jian Inspector, Yulin 羽林監
Yushi Secretary to the Imperial Counsellor 御史
Yushi Dafu Imperial Counsellor [Grandee Secretary, Imperial Clerk Grandee] 御史大夫
Yushi zhongcheng Assistant to the Imperial Counsellor [Palace Assistant Secretary] 御史中丞
Zai Magistrate (see HHS 26, p. 901 note)
Zei Cao Bureau of Banditry 賊曹
Zhang (a) Magistrate [Chief] (b) Head
Zhanggu Recorder of Precedent [Authority on Ancient Matters] 掌故
Zhangshi Chief clerk 長史
Zhanshi Supervisor of the Household 詹事
Zhengshi Consultant 徵事
Zhi su Duwei Commandant, Control of Grain 治粟都尉
Zhi su Neishi Superintendent of Agriculture [Clerk of the Capital for Grain] 治粟內史
Zhijinwu Superintendent of the Capital [Bearer of the Gilded Mace] 執金吾
Zhishi Weaving House 織室
Zhizong Superintendent of Ceremonial 秩宗
Zhong Changshi Regular Palace Attendant 中常侍
Zhong Dafu Counsellor of the Palace [Palace Grandee] 中大夫
Zhong Huangmen Attendant at the Yellow Gates [Palace Attendant of the Yellow Gates] 中黃門
Zhong Jiangjun General of the Centre 中將軍
Zhong Lei Xiaowei Colonel, Central Ramparts [Colonel of the Capital Rampart] 中壘校尉
Zhong Taipu Superintendent of Transport of the Palace [Palace Grand Coachman] 中太僕
Zhong Yezhe Royal Messenger [Palace Intemuncio] 中謁者
Zhong Yezhe Ling Director of Messengers, Palace Writers [Prefect of the Palace Intemuncios] 中謁者令
Zhonglang Gentlemen of the Palace [Gentlemen of the Household] 中郎
Zhonglang Jiang Leader of the Gentlemen of the Palace [General of the Gentlemen of the Household] 中郎將
Zhongshu Ling Director, Palace Writers 中書令
Zhongshu Puye Supervisor, Palace Writers 中書僕射
Zhongwei Superintendent of the Capital [Commandant of the Capital] 中尉
Zhou Mu Regional Commissioner [Shepherd] 州牧
Zhu Jue Duwei Commandant, Orders of Honour [Chief Commandant over the Nobility] 主爵都尉
Zhubu Registrar [Master of Records] 主簿
Zhuli (an honorary title, i.e. jia guan) [Inspector of Officials] 諸吏
Zongzheng Superintendent [Director] of the Imperial Clan 宗正
Zuo Cao Bureau Head of the Left 左曹
Zuo Lingyin Senior Minister of the Left 左令尹
Zuo Neishi Metropolitan Superintendent of the Left [Clerk of the Eastern Part of the Capital] 左內史
Zuo Pingyi Metropolitan Superintendent of the Left [Eastern Supporter] 左馮翊
Zushi (see Loewe, RHA vol. II, p. 387) 卒史
Zuzheng Governor [Director of Confederations] 卒正


(b) English Renderings (as in Dubs, Bielenstein and de Crespigny)


Entries follow for variant terms used in Dubs, Bielenstein and de Crespigny [those adopted parenthesis].


Attending Physician [Physician in Attendance] Shiyi 侍醫
Attending Secretary [Secretary in Attendance on the Imperial Counsellor] (see Hulsewé, ‘Shuo—wen Dictionary’, p. 254) Shi Yushi 侍御史
Authority on Ancient Matters [Recorder of Precedent] Zhanggu 掌故
Bearer of the Gilded Mace [Superintendent of the Capital] Zhijinwu 執金吾
Bureau of Consultation [Consultative Bureau] Yicao 議曹
Captain, Company [Brigade] of the Right You Quhou 右曲候
Cavalier Attendant [Honorary title, not translated] Sanji 散騎
Chief Commandant of the Adjunct Capital Region [Commandant, Governor of the Capital] Jing fu Duwei 京輔都尉
Chief Commandant of Agriculture [Commandant, Agriculture] Nong Duwei 農都尉
Chief Commandant of Attendant Cavalry [Commandant, Attendant Cavalry] Fuma Duwei 駙馬都尉
Chief Commandant of Cavalry [Commandant, Cavalry] Ji Duwei 騎都尉
Chief Commandant of Imperial Equipages [Commandant, Imperial Carriages] Fengju Duwei 奉車都尉
Chief Commandant over the Nobility [Commandant, Orders of Honour] Zhu Jue Duwei 主爵都尉
Chief Commandant of a Pass [Commandant of the Passes] Guan Duwei 關都尉
Chief Commandant Protecting Grain Transport by Water [Commandant, Grain Transport] Hucao Duwei 護漕都尉
Chief Commandant of Waters and Parks [Superintendent of Waterways and Parks] Shuiheng Duwei 水衡都尉
Chief Commandant who Searches for Grain [Commandant, Collection of Grain] Sou Su Duwei 騪粟都尉
Chief of a Commune [Village Head, Ward Head] Ting Zhang 亭長
Clerk of the Capital [Metropolitan Superintendent] Neishi 內史
Clerk of the Capital for Grain [Superintendent of Agriculture] Zhi su Neishi 治粟內史
Clerk of the Eastern Part of the Capital [Metropolitan Superintendent of the Left] Zuo Neishi 左內史
Clerk of the Western Part of the Capital [Metropolitan Superintendent of the Right] You Neishi 右內史
Colonel of Archers who Shoot by Sound [Colonel, Archers under Training] Shesheng Xiaowei 射聲校尉
Colonel of the Capital Rampart [Colonel, Central Ramparts] Zhong Lei Xiaowei 中壘校尉
Colonel Director of Retainers [Colonel, Internal Security] (Sili from 7 BC; see HSBZ 11.8a; 75.31b, 86.7a notes; Bielenstein, Bureaucracy, pp. 84—5) Sili Xiaowei, Sili 司隸校尉
Colonel of Foot Soldiers [Colonel, Infantry] Bubing Xiaowei 歩兵校尉
Colonel of Hu Cavalry [Colonel, Foreign Cavalry] Hu Ji Xiaowei 胡騎校尉
Colonel Protecting the Tibetans [Colonel Protector of the Qiang] Hu Qiang Xiaowei 護羌校尉
Commandant of the Capital [Superintendent of the Capital] Zhongwei 中尉
Commandant of the Changle Palace Guard [Superintendent of the Guards (Changle Palace)] Changle Weiwei 長樂衛尉
Commandant of Justice [Superintendent of Trials] Tingwei 廷尉
Commander-in-Chief [Marshal of State] Da Sima 大司馬
Concurrent Offices (term for Honorary Titles, without quota) Jia Guan 加官
Director of Confederations [Governor] Zuzheng 卒正
Director of Guests [Superintendent of State Visits] Dianke 典客
Director of the Imperial Clan [Superintendent of the Imperial Clan] Zongzheng 宗正
Eastern Supporter [Metropolitan Superintendent of the Left] Zuo Pingyi 左馮翊
Erudit [Academician] Boshi 博士
Feathered Forest corps [Elite Yulin] Yulin 羽林
Foreman Clerk [(a) Junior official of a county (b) Magistrate’s clerk] Ling Shi 令史
General of Agile Cavalry [General of Cavalry on the Alert] Piaoji Jiangjun 驃騎將軍
General who Crosses the Liao River [General, Trans-Liao Command] Du Liao Jiangjun 度遼將軍
General of the Gentlemen-of-the-Household [Leader of the Gentlemen of the Palace] Zhonglang Jiang 中郎將
General of the Gentlemen-of-the-Household for All Purposes [Leader of the Gentleman of the Palace, all purposes] Wu guan Zhonglang Jiang 五官中郎將
General of the Gentlemen-of-the-Palace of the Doors [Leader at the Gates, Gentlemen of the Palace] Langzhong Hu Jiang 郎中戶將
General of Resolute Cavalry [General of Swift Cavalry] Xiaoji Jiangjun 驍騎將軍
Gentlemen of the Household [Gentlemen of the Palace] Zhonglang 中郎
Gentleman in Regular Attendance [Gentleman in Permanent Attendance] Changshi Lang 常侍郎
Grand Administrator [Governor] Taishou 太守
Grand Coachman [Superintendent of Transport] Taipu 太僕
Grand Commandant [Supreme Commander] Taiwei 太尉
Grandee at the Gate of the Heir Apparent [Counsellor, Establishment of the Heir Apparent] Taizi men Dafu 太子門大夫
Grand Governor [Governor] Dayin 大尹
Grand Guardian [Grand Protector] Taibao 太保
Grand Herald [Superintendent of State Visits] Da Honglu 大鴻臚
Grand Master [Grand Tutor] Taishi 太師
Grand Master of Ceremonies [Superintendent of Ceremonial] Taichang 太常
Grand Minister of Agriculture [Superintendent of Agriculture] Da Sinong 大司農
Grand Minister of Works [Imperial Counsellor] Da Sikong 大司空
Grand Minister over the Masses [Chancellor] Da Situ 大司徒
Grand Palace Grandee [Grand Counsellor of the Palace] Taizhong Dafu 太中大夫
Grand Prefect/Chief of Agriculture [Superintendent of Agriculture] Da Nongling 大農令
Grand Prolonger of Autumn [Empress’ Chamberlain] Da Changqiu 大長秋
Grand Tutor [Senior Tutor] TaiFu 太傅
Grandee [Counsellor] Dafu 大夫
Grandee Remonstrant [Advisory Counsellor] Jian[yi] Dafu 諫[議]大夫
Grandee Secretary, or Imperial Clerk Grandee [Imperial Counsellor] Yushi Dafu 御史大夫
Imperial Household Grandee [Counsellor of the Palace] Guanglu Dafu 光祿大夫
Inspector [Regional Inspector] Cishi 刺史
Inspector of the Grand Physician [Inspector of Physicians-in-Chief] Taiyi Jian 太醫監
Inspector of Officials [an honorary title, i.e. jia guan] Zhuli 諸吏
Inspector of Tones [Inspector of Tunes] Yin Jian 音監
Intemuncio [Imperial Messenger, Royal Messenger] Yezhe 謁者
Leader of Combinations [Governor] Lianshuai 連率
Lieutenant Chancellor (as in Dubs) [Chancellor] Chengxiang 丞相
Master of Records [Registrar] Zhubu 主簿
Member of the Suite [Attached to the staff of] Sheren 舍人
Nine Ministers [Nine Ministers of State] Jiu Qing 九卿
Palace Assistant Secretary [Assistant to the Imperial Counsellor] Yushi zhongcheng 御史中丞
Palace Attendant of the Yellow Gates [Attendant at the Yellow Gates] Zhong Huangmen 中黃門
Palace Grand Coachman [Superintendent of Transport of the Palace] Zhong Taipu 中太僕
Palace Grandee [Counsellor of the Palace] Zhong Dafu 中大夫
Palace Intemuncio [Royal Messenger] Zhong Yezhe 中謁者
Prefect [Magistrate] Ling
Prefect of the Arsenal [Director, Armoury] Wuku Ling 武庫令
Prefect of the Bureau of Equalisation and Standards [Director, Office for Price Stabilization] Pingzhun Ling 平準令
Prefect of the Gentlemen-of-the-Palace [Superintendent of the Palace] Langzhong Ling 郎中令
Prefect Grand Astrologer [Director, Astronomy] Taishi Ling 太史令
Prefect Grand Physician [Director of the Physicians-in-Chief] Taiyi Ling 太醫令
Prefect Grand Usher [Superintendent of State Visits] Da Xingling 大行令
Prefect of the Great Granary [Director of the Great Granary] Tai Cang Ling 太倉令
Prefect of the Household [Director of the Household] Jia Ling 家令
Prefect Intendant of the Imperial Palace Gardens [Director, Imperial Palace Gardens] Goushun Ling 鉤盾令
Prefect of the Imperial Wardrobe [Director, Palace Wardrobe] Yufu Ling 御府令
Prefect of Insignia and Credentials [Director, Insignia and Credentials] Fujie Ling 符節令
Prefect of the Lateral Courts [Director, Sleeping Apartments] Yeting Ling 掖庭令
Prefect of the Masters of Writing [Director of the Secretariat] Shangshu Ling 尙書令
Prefect of the Office of Interpreters [Director, Interpreters’ Office] Yi Guan Ling 譯官令
Prefect of the Office of Sacrificial Oblations and Victims [Director, Sacrificial Stores and Animals] Linxi Ling 廩犧令
Prefect of the Palace Intemuncios [Director of Messengers, Palace Writers] Zhong Yezhe Ling 中謁者令
Prefect of the Stables for Riding Horses [Director of Riding Horses] Jima Ling 騎馬令
Prefect of Stables, Weiyang Palace [Director of Stables, Weiyang Palace] Weiyang Jiu Ling 未央廏令
Privy Treasurer [Superintendent of the Lesser Treasury] Shaofu 少府
Shepherd [Regional Commissioner] Mu/ Zhou Mu 牧,州牧
Superintendent of the Imperial Household [Superintendent of the Palace] Guangluxun 光祿勳
Supervisor of the Erudits [Supervisor of the Academicians] Boshi Puye 博士僕射
Supervisor of the Masters of Writing [Deputy Director, Secretariat] Shangshu Puye 尙書僕射
Upholder of Ceremonies [Superintendent of Ceremonial] Fengchang 奉常
Western Sustainer [Metropolitan Superintendent of the Right]  You Fufeng 右扶風
Wu and Chi Colonels [Wu and Ji Colonel] (see Chen Zhi, Han shu xin zheng p. 452, Hulsewé CICA, p. 79 note 63) Wuji Xiaowei 戊己校尉

1 See HS 19A; for detailed studies of Qin and Han institutions, see Wang Yü—ch’üan, ‘An Outline of the Central Government of the Former Han Dynasty’; Bielenstein, Bureaucracy, Kamada Shigeo, Shin Kan seiji seido no kenkyû; Tao Xisheng and Shen Juchen, Qin Han zhengzhi zhidu; Wang Chao, Gao Wenjun and Xie Qingzhuan, Zhongyang zhiguan zhi; Nishijima Sadao, Chûgoku kodai teikoku no keisei to kôzô; Twitchett and Loewe (eds.), The Cambridge History of China, vol. I chapters 7,8 and 9; for local government, see Yan Gengwang, Zhongguo difang xingzheng zhidu shi; for official titles, see de Crespigny, Official Titles of the Former Han Dynasty; for military organisation, see Loewe, RHA, vol. I, chapter IV and vol. II, pp. 384—7; for summaries, see Hulsewé, RHL, pp. 14—7; Loewe, Crisis and Conflict, pp. 307—14.

2 For a full list of the terms used for the Nine Ministers of State, see Loewe, Crisis and Conflict, p. 310.

3 See HHSJJ 24.2a note for the suggestion that Wang Mang’s terms for these governors corresponded with marks of status or rank.

4 ‘Grandee’ seems to have been first used to denote a Spanish or Portuguese nobleman of the highest rank, but the word is not known as a designation of an official of state. To many readers, it may carry implications of a gorgeously dressed courtier, who bore no responsibilities for government. For the basic reference to Dafu, see HSBZ 19A.8b.

Michael Loewe